Posts Tagged ‘Syndromes’


Image: Irlen.com

Update: Irlen Syndrome: 18/3/2013

By Cynthia Mccormick
July 17, 2008
For years, Tracy Bowman of Buzzards Bay tried to get her elementary-school-age daughter to pick up a book and read.

She stocked her home with the newest children’s literature and beloved classics.

But Bowman ended up reading the Junie B. Jones books out loud to Dayna, now 10, after the child complained that reading hurt her eyes.

Bowman had her daughter’s vision tested.

It was fine.

The staff at James F. Peebles Elementary School had Dayna tested for learning disabilities.

She was fine.

Some people thought Dayna might just be lazy, but when Bowman saw her vivacious, active daughter getting off the bus every day in tears after another failure in school, she knew something else was going on.

“She couldn’t read like her friends did,” Bowman says. “It was breaking my heart. I would have to read her homework directions to her.”

Dayna’s teachers puzzled over her case, too. Then, on a hunch, a Bourne special education teacher had the girl tested for a little-known perceptual problem called Irlen syndrome.

Also known as scoptopic sensitivity syndrome, Irlen syndrome causes problems with the nervous system’s understanding of visual information, such as printing.

Most sufferers are bothered by light sensitivity, especially fluorescent lights. Reading makes them feel strained or sleepy and can give them headaches — which is not surprising, since words seem to move around the page, and readers have trouble finding their place.

Really bad cases of Irlen syndrome can make it almost impossible for sufferers to sit down and read for any period of time. Children with milder cases may be good readers who don’t progress as much in their instruction as teachers expect.

“I’d never heard of it before,” Bowman says.

Diane Godfrey, the special education teacher, explained that Dayna saw the written page differently from other people.

“It was like looking at an optical illusion all the time,” Bowman says.

The solution to Dayna’s reading problems was surprisingly simple.
All Dayna required to put her back on track with her peer group was to have a transparent colored overlay placed on her reading material.
Irlen expert Georgianna Saba of Medford determined that the best color transparency for Dayna was pink, so now the girl goes to school with an 8-by-10-inch, rose-colored transparent page to put over her schoolwork. She also was fitted with a pair of nonprescription glasses with pink-tinted lenses.

The transformation was amazing, Bowman says.

“Dayna is now getting the best report card she ever had,” she says. “She is going to bed reading. She says, ‘Mom, can I please keep reading? Please?'”

When Dayna’s tutor lent her a book about Irlen syndrome, called “Reading by the Colors,” Bowman felt a flash of recognition.

“I was reading about myself,” she says. A hairdresser, she had decided to forgo college because she doubted she could keep up with the coursework.

“Reading was labored and difficult for me,” Bowman says. “My brain would shut off, and I’d fall asleep.”

Together with a now-retired social worker from the Bourne school system, Julie Sacchetti, Bowman founded a local company called the Irlen Connection, which refers children and adults to testing for Irlen syndrome.

The main purpose of the Irlen Connection is to raise awareness about the perceptual problem, which is not picked up by regular special education testing or physicians, Bowman says.

She and Sacchetti are lobbying the Legislature to include testing for Irlen syndrome in the normal battery of special education tests.

While House Bill 539 initially would require an outlay of approximately $838,250 to train testers in screening methods, it would save the special education system millions of dollars, the women say.

Irlen syndrome is named after Helen Irlen, the educational psychologist who discovered the condition while working with adult learners in California in the early 1980s.

Irlen found that some students’ reading improved when they covered a page of print with a colored overlay.

Bowman and Sacchetti say cases of Irlen syndrome often are misdiagnosed as attention-deficit disorder or other issues that can require costly educational interventions. Once Irlen syndrome is diagnosed, the only cost is for colored transparencies and glasses.

Saba, the Irlen expert, estimates that after 12 months of Irlen testing, 1,000 students would be able to be pulled off Individual Education Plans for a savings of about $6.7 million.

Massachusetts Education Commissioner David P. Driscoll has called the 45-minute Irlen screening method “very efficient and economical.”

Arizona has passed a bill for a pilot project, and California has a pilot project for its prison population, Bowman says.

Representatives in the Massachusetts House are scheduled to vote on the testing bill by the end of the month.

Bowman is optimistic the bill will get passed this time, even though similar legislation has languished in the Statehouse for years.

She predicts that Irlen screening would boost MCAS scores, as students bone up on reading.

Bowman can’t even put a price tag on how much emotional pain can be deflected by screening for Irlen syndrome.

“My daughter used to cry and say no one understands,” she says. “We have to help these kids in elementary school. There’s nothing wrong with their intelligence.”




Which colour do you prefer as a background colour when reading these text? Have you heard about Irlen-syndrome? No? Well, read further…and read on the link on Irlen.com even more! You will also see a book in this post- at the end. A book which  scanned through when a friend of mine was busy with her studies in becoming an Educational  Psychologist. People with Irlen-syndrome prefer to read with a coloured background, therefore the colour buttons on the site of Irlen.com for you to enhance the colour of the site’s background. In some schools Senco’s also advise teachers to have light yellow as a background for Power Point slides and Interactive Whiteboard slides. Even the children I’m teaching prefer yellow as a background! These colours have absolutely nothing to do with ‘getting children to relax’ – like I was ‘corrected‘ recently… it is to reduce the ‘glare’ of the slides reflecting in children’s eyes, causing problems such as headaches.

Read about the dyslexic/hyperactive child on this link. The link will open in a new window.

The Irlen Method –
Helping Children and Adults with processing problems for over 25 years The Irlen Method is the only research-based color method backed by over 4,000 school districts. Used by educators since 1983, this patented method and color-based technology was discovered by Helen Irlen, MA, LMFT, the nation’s leading expert in perceptually-based reading and learning difficulties.

The Irlen Method is a non-invasive, patented technology that uses colored overlays and filters to improve the brain’s ability to process visual information. It is the only method scientifically proven to successfully correct the processing problems associated with Irlen Syndrome.

This technology can improve reading fluency, comfort, comprehension, attention, and concentration while reducing light sensitivity. This is not a method of reading instruction. It is a color-based technology that filters out offensive light waves, so the brain can accurately process visual information.

We help children and adults suffering from

Reading and learning problems
ADD/HD, Autism and Asperger Syndrome
Behavioral and emotional problems
Headaches, migraines, fatigue and other physical symptoms
Light Sensitivity/Photophobia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), whip lash, and concussions
Certain medical and visual conditions.

This method has received international acclaim and is included in professional journals and textbooks. It has also been featured in national and international media, including National Geographic, 60 Minutes, Good Morning America, ABC World News, NBC News, the BBC and TV shows in Ireland, Hong Kong, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, and Australia.

What is the Irlen Method?

The Irlen Method has been used for over 25 years to identify and help people with a type of processing problem called Irlen Syndrome, formerly known as Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS). Irlen Syndrome is not an optical problem. It is a problem with the brain’s ability to process visual information. This problem tends to run in families and is not currently identified by other standardized educational or medical tests.

Irlen Syndrome can affect many different areas, including:

Academic and work performance
Ability to sit still

This problem can manifest itself differently for each individual. This problem is not remediable and is often a lifetime barrier to learning and performance. If you suffer from any of the following, Irlen Syndrome might be your problem:

Print looks different
Environment looks different
Slow or inefficient reading
Poor comprehension
Eye strain
Difficulty with math computation
Difficulty copying
Difficulty reading music
Poor sports performance
Poor depth-perception
Low motivation
Low self-esteem
Symptoms of Irlen Syndrome
Light Sensitivity

Bothered by glare, fluorescent lights, bright lights, sunlight and sometimes lights at night
Some individuals experience physical symptoms and feel tired, sleepy, dizzy, anxious, or irritable. Others experience headaches, mood changes, restlessness or have difficulty staying focused, especially with bright or fluorescent lights.

Reading Problems

Poor comprehension
Misreads words
Problems tracking from line to line
Reads in dim light
Skips words or lines
Reads slowly or hesitantly
Takes breaks
Loses place
Avoids reading


Strain and fatigue
Tired or sleepy
Headaches or nausea
Fidgety or restless
Eyes that hurt or become watery

Attention and Concentration Problems

Problems with concentration when reading and doing academic tasks
Often people can appear to have other conditions, such as attention deficit disorder, and are given medication unnecessarily.

Writing Problems:

Trouble copying
Unequal spacing
Unequal letter size
Writing up or downhill
Inconsistent spelling

Other Characteristics:

Strain or fatigue from computer use
Difficulty reading music
Sloppy, careless math errors
Misaligned numbers in columns
Ineffective use of study time
Lack of motivation
Grades do not reflect the amount of effort

Depth Perception:

Difficulty catching balls
Difficutly judging distances
Additional caution necessary while driving


Words on the page lack clarity or stability; i.e., may appear to be blurry, moving, or disappear. See more distortions on the Irlen.com-site.

irlen seesaw

irlen river

irlen washout
Read more on the Irlen website. The link will open in a new window.

Afrikaans readers:

Watter kleur verkies jy om as agtergrond te he wanneer jy lees? Kyk na hierdie gedeeltes, presies dieselfde stuk, met verskillende agtergronde! Dit is waaroor Irlen-sindroom gaan. Lees meer daaroor hier en op die webbladsy-link wat ek gegee het. Gaan lees gerus by “juffer” ook – link onderaan die pos – oor leesprobleme. Lees ook my ondervinding met ‘n leerling in my klas wat ek laat skandeer het deur ‘n vriendin. Die berig wat ek hier plaas het ek ook deur “juffer” gekry, wat natuurlik ‘n paar jaar terug verskyn het, daarom glo ek dat die statistieke wat daarin genoem word, vandag natuurlik bietjie “anders” sal lyk. Onthou, kinders met enige leerprobleem, is nie “dom” nie. Daar bestaan vir my nie so ‘n woord in my woordeskat wanneer dit by kinders/leerprobleme kom nie. Kinders leer verskillend, is verskillend! en reageer verskillend op die leerinhoud wat deur Onderwysers voorgehou word, ek glo dat Onderwysers meer van hulle kant af moet doen om die behoeftes van kinders aan te vul, wat betref hul onderrigstyl, omdat kinders verskillende leerstyle het!
Afrikaans Readers….Hierdie is ‘n koerantartikel..wat in 1989 verskyn het.

Jou `lui, dom’ kind is dalk ‘n Irlen-lyer
Inge Verster

Duisende kinders ly onwetend aan Irlen-sindroom, wat hulle onnodig as onderpresteerders en ongemotiveerd brandmerk. Inge Verster het meer oor die verskynsel uitgevind.
Soos wat jy besig is om hierdie woorde as ‘n sinvolle geheel te lees, is ‘n optiese wonder aan die gebeur. Dink daaroor. Elke 250 millisekondes word jou oë met nuwe, inkomende, visuele stimuli gebombardeer.  En terwyl jou kykers vinniger as springmieliepitte in kokende olie rondspring om dit te verwerk word daar van jou brein verwag om sin te maak uit die horde stilstaande letters en woorde op die koerantpapier voor jou. Geoefende chaos vir die meeste van ons, maar bittere stryd vir duisende mense wat êrens ‘n kortsluiting in die visuele verwerkingsproses beleef mense soos dié met Irlen-sindroom, ‘n verskynsel wat onderwysers, sielkundiges en mediese wetenskaplikes tot nou toe aan die raai gehad het omdat dit nie deur standaardvisuele, -opvoedkundige en -sielkundige skooltoetse opgespoor word nie. Amerikaanse navorsers het gevind dat nagenoeg 12 tot 14% van kinders van skoolgaande ouderdom aan dié sin droom ly. Die tragedie is egter dat die meeste Irlen-lyers onwetend met die sindroom saamleef, en lewenslank etikette soos “onderpresteerder”, “dom”, “lui” of “ongemotiveerd” kry.

Enorme oningeligtheid heers oor die sindroom, ook in Suid-Afrika, waar dit maar eers die afgelope sowat drie jaar werklik in die kollig is, sê Martelean Venter, ‘n opvoedkundige sielkundige van Nelspruit en een van twee gekwalifiseerde Irlen-diagnostici in Suid-Afrika. Die sindroom ook bekend as – Skotopiese Sensitiwiteitsindroom (SSS) – dra die naam van Helen Irlen, die Amerikaanse opvoedkundige sielkundige en pionier op die gebied van behandeling van die toestand met gekleurde filters.

Irlen-sindroom is ‘n visuele persepsuele probleem, eerder as ‘n oogprobleem. Mense wat hieraan ly, sukkel om al die kleure in die ligspektrum te verwerk en ondervind gevolglik persepsuele distorsies. Dis ‘n komplekse, veranderbare toestand wat dikwels in kombinasie met ander leer- of leesprobleme, hiperaktiwiteit, aandagafwykings of disleksie gepaardgaan. Lees verg groter moeite en konsentrasie van Irlen-lyers omdat hulle letters en woorde anders as normale lesers sien. Hulle moet hulself voortdurend inspan om by verwringings van die gedrukte teks of die wit agtergrond aan te pas. Die gevolg is dat hulle vinnig moeg word, sukkel om met begrip te lees en nie lank kan konsentreer nie. Genetiese oordraag-baarheid speel ‘n sterk rol in dié neurologiese probleem.

‘n Australiese studie het bevind dat 84% van een of albei ouers van ‘n kind met Irlen-sindroom ook simptome toon. Irlen en disleksie, ‘n moontlike simptoom daarvan, word dikwels met mekaar verwar. Na raming is een uit elke tien mense disleksies en/of sukkel met ‘n  vorm van leergestremdheid. Daar word gereken dat sowat die helfte van dié groep aan wisselende grade van die Irlen-sin droom ly. Irlen-lyers word dikwels bloot as disleksies geklassifiseer, sê Venter.

Disleksiese volwassenes sonder Irlen neem ‘n betrokke bladsy op dieselfde manier waar, onafhanklik van hoe lank aaneen hulle lees. Irlen-lyers, daarenteen, sukkel om ‘n konstante beeld van die bladsy te vorm en vind lees al hoe meer inspannend, hoe langer hulle dit doen. As teenvoeter vir dié probleem het Helen Irlen in die vroeë jare tagtig met gekleurde filters in die vorms van lense en dekblaaie vorendag gekom. Een van die teorieë agter die gekleurde lense is dat dit die kontras tussen die agtergrond en die letters verskerp. Só herstel dit die kortsluiting wat Irlen-lyers vermoedelik ondervind tussen die “vinnige” en die “stadige” paadjies wat stimuli in die visuele korteks in die brein vervoer. ‘n Ander teorie lui dat die visuele verwerkingstelsel deels deur verspreide rooi lig ge¨nhibeer word. Die veronderstelling is dat ‘n blou filter, wat die rooi lig uitblok, die korrekte tydsberekening help bewerkstellig. Volgens die Irlen-Instituut in Long Beach, Kalifornië, is daar wêreldwyd nagenoeg 50000 mense wat Irlen-filters dra. Die sukses daarvan wissel van individu tot individu.

Onlangse navorsing in Australië het getoon dat meer as 80% van mense steeds ná ses jaar tevrede was met hul lense, sê André Greyling, opvoedkundige sielkundige en Irlen diagnostikus van Arcadia, Pretoria. Plaaslik vertel die lense ‘n suksesverhaal. Dit gebeur wel dat die simptome oor die jare verander, veral in ‘n kind wat nog ontwikkel, en dan moet sy lense aangepas word. “Sowat 98% van Irlen se simptome kan deur die lense verlig word. Maar omdat dit ‘n sindroom is, raak die persoon nooit heeltemal ontslae daarvan nie.” Irlen-filters is allermins ‘n blitskuur vir disleksie. Mense kan nie skielik voorheen onbekende woorde herken of beskik nie uit die bloute oor nuwe fonetiese vaardighede nie. “Die lense neem die distorsies weg, maar die swak lees- en skryfvaardighede wat oor die jare aangeleer is, is steeds daar.” ‘n Duideliker, meer stabiele waarneming van enige vorm van drukwerk  is ‘n verbetering wat kan intree. Die leser is meer ontspanne en kan langer aaneen lees. Synde self ‘n Irlen-lyer, onthou Venter die gevoelens van ontoereikendheid, minderwaardigheid en verwardheid wat sy as “onderpresteerder” op skool ervaar het. Ure se vasberade gesukkel agter die boeke smiddae ná skool het haar nie veel meer in die sak gebring as kwaai hoofpyne nie iets wat geen leesbril of mediese toetse kon opklaar of verklaar nie. In Suid-Afrika is daar nou opgeleide Irlen-sifters wat vir die sindroom kan toets. Pasiënte word verwys na die twee Irlen-klinieke, waar omvattende diagnostiese toetse gedoen word om ‘n korrekte filterkleur uit ‘n haas onbeperkte spektrum kleurkombinasies te kies. Dit is wenslik dat mense ‘n optometriese toets aflê om die aanwesigheid van enige oogprobleme vas te stel voordat hulle lense kry. Behandeling in die Irlen-klinieke is holisties die kind se mediese, sielkundige en opvoedkundige agtergrond word in oënskou geneem. Irlen-filters sluit nie verdere remedierende terapie uit nie. Vroeë tekens van Irlen is soms te bespeur in voor-skoolse kinders wat byvoorbeeld sukkel om ‘n bal te vang, fiets te ry of tussen die lyne in te kleur.
Dit kan ook gebeur dat kinders dalk in die eerste sowat drie skooljare goed regkom met lees, en dat die simptome eers daarna kop uitsteek wanneer die leer- en leeslas toeneem.

Baie volwassenes, wat onwetend aan Irlen-sindroom ly, ervaar daagliks erge frustrasie weens onverklaarbaar lae produktiwiteit by die werk. Harde werkers sukkel om hul werk betyds klaar te kry, kan nie vir lank op ‘n dokument konsentreer nie, word gou moeg en neem dikwels ‘n kwaai hoofpyn of migraine smiddae huis toe. Dit kan ook in skryfgewoontes manifesteer. Die persoon ervaar skryf as uitputtend. Die skrif is oneweredig, skuins teen die kantlyn af, soos ‘n enkele kolom in die middel van die blad of vol spelfoute.

Bron…Die link sal in ‘n nuwe bladsy oopmaak.

Ek was baie gelukkig om deel te kon wees van die heel laaste groep studente in SA om die kursus te doen wat hulle voorheen die MBD-kursus genoem het. Dit staan vir “Minimale Brein Disfunksie”. Die Dept. van Onderwys het toe besluit dit klink te…er…”erg” en toe ons groep se kwalifikasie-benaming “herdoop” na: “Psigoneurologiese Leergestremdhede”. Kortliks, dit sluit alles in oor die vroeër jare se Hulpklas, in kort, leerders wat leerafwykings/leerprobleme het. Dit sluit nie die kind in met Spesifieke Leergestremdhede nie, bv. Die blinde kind, dowe kind, ens.alhoewel ons studierigting ook voorsiening gemaak het vir al daardie komponente en ons dit ook bestudeer het, maar die uiteindelike kursus was gemik op die Hulpklas in  Hoofstroom Onderwys.

Ek het ‘n leerling/leerder in my klas gehad – daardie stadium was hy Gr3 – wat leesprobleme ondervind het. Terselfdertyd het hy ook konsentrasie-probleme gehad en selfs sy handskrif het probleme opgelewer. Ek was altyd, sedert my RO-kwalifikasie en later ook die MBD-kwalifikasie, baie sensitief vir enige simptome/afwykings wat leer by die enige kind kon/kan beinvloed. Ek het op dieselfde stadium ‘n vriendin gehad wat gestudeer het as Opvoedkundige Sielkundige en ons het altyd heerlik oor leerders se leerprobleme gekommunikeer en inligting/feite uitgeruil. Sy het met een kuiersessie haar jongste boek saam gebring wat sy besig was om deur te werk vir haar kursus…”Reading by the Colours” geskryf deur Irlen. Natuurlik het ek hom net daar geleen en self deurgewerk, maar haar intussen vertel van Johan (nie sy regte naam nie) in my klas. Johan was ‘n uiters intelligente kind, ontsettend sportief, ‘n  briljante skaakspeler, – die volgende jaar Gauteng-Noord Kleure in Skaak verwerf! en ‘n oulik-gebalanseerde kind wat uit ‘n gebalanseerde normale ouerhuis kom. Sy ouers was baie ondersteunend en sou berge vir hul kinders en Onderwysers versit waar en wanneer hulle kon. Ek het dadelik my vriendin dieselfde kuiertjie gevra om Johan te skandeer vir die probleem….met die wete dat ek geweet sy ouers sou net te bly gewees het, alhoewel ek hul toestemming gevra het. Natuurlik was my vriendin geneë met die gedagte omdat dit vir haar studies baie sou beteken het. Uit die skanderingsessie het dit geblyk dat Johan geel as agtergrond verkies om te lees. My vriendin was so gaaf en het vir hom ‘n geel “overlay” gegee wat hy oor sy leesboek/leesmateriaal moes plaas wanneer hy gelees het. Ons kon dadelik ‘n verskil agterkom, maar die verskil was nie drasties nie. Johan is wel later deeglik getoets vir sy probleem. Ek was nie bewus (soos baie ander onnies op daardie stadium) van die sindroom – voordat ek daarvan in tydskrifte gelees het o.a. Huisgenoot – en deur my vriendin meer daarvan gehoor het. Omdat Onderwysers in die hoofstroom nie daarmee te doen kry nie, is hulle nie altyd bewus van enige simptome nie. Sommige Onderwysers se ingesteldheid moet ook soms verander word met probleme rakende leerders, omdat baie Onderwysers in baie gevalle dink dat kinders sommer net “stout” is en probleme afmaak as “luiheid” of “stoutigheid” / “laksheid/lyf-wegsteek” ens. As ‘n kind nie lief vir lees is nie, is daar een van ‘n paar probleme:
1. Die betrokke kind is as ‘n jong/kleiner kind (ouderdom ongeveer 4-8) nooit aan interessante/lekker verhale blootgestel nie, veral tuis en later by die skool waar die skool die ouers “aanvul”. Ek blameer ouer/Onderwyser, maar die ouer se aandeel is die grootste, die skool kan nie “regstel” as daar van die ouer se kant niks gedoen word nie of selfs afbreek wat Juffrou probeer! Slegs hierdie week het ons weer so ‘n geval gehad van ‘n ouer (ma) wat ‘n brief skooltoe gestuur het met ‘n “attitude” wat skrik vir niks, alles in die brief dui daarop dat sy totaal vere voel vir haar kind se skoolonderrig en sy het dit in soveel woorde gesê dit  sodat die kind dieselfde houding inneem! “can’t be bothered”.  Hoe kan die Onderwyser dan ooit wen!
2. Die betrokke kind het heel waarskynlik ‘n oog-probleem. Onderwysers kan nooit verkeerd gaan om net seker te maak nie! Liewer “safe than sorry”! Selfs ouers!! kan maar gerus hul kind teen die ouerdom van 11 neem vir ‘n goeie oogtoets, omdat jou kind se oë nog ontwikkel tot ouderdom van 10! Fokus…as ek reg onthou, ontwikkel nog op daardie stadium. Soms kry jonger kinders ‘n bril slegs vir ‘n tydperk..en sodra hul ouer word…11/12 ens…dan het hulle nie meer die bril nodig nie…
3. Ouers forseer kinders om te lees/koop hul kinders om om te lees, sodat hulle dalk hul kinders kan liefmaak vir lees. (ja!! dit het ek gekry gedurende my skoolhou-tyd in SA! ‘n Twaalfjarige meisie wat vir my vertel het dat sy ‘n aantal boeke moes lees voordat sy per boek betaal was, wat ook haar sakgeld was en as sy dit nie gedoen het nie, was daar probleme! Arme kind! Sy het lees elke minuut gehaat, want haar pa het die boeke gekies! en dan het hy gekies waarvan sy nie gehou het nie…allerhande feite boeke….ver bokant haar belangstellingsveld.  Wat ‘n straf vir so ‘n kind!! en wat ‘n breinlose ouer! – jammer, vir hierdie sterk woord, maar dit maak my die hoenders in as ouers nie vir hulself kan dink wanneer dit by lees/hul kinders kom nie.

Gaan lees gerus wat Juffer hier op haar blog se oor jou kind se leesprobleme.

You can order this book/read inside at Amazon’s site on the given link.

The link will open in a new window.

reading by the colors

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Read about the characteristics of students with dyslexia at the end of this entry, this entry is very extensive..slide down, please. There are more other links at the end of this entry too.

I’ve heard many times that children think they are “dumb” when they have learning difficulties. I always tell them there is NO such thing in this world as a ‘dumb‘ child. Everybody learns in a unique and different way. Some children are visual learners and some are kinesthetic learners and others just take a bit more time to learn due to development of the brain, which plays an important part. Those synapses – (electronic messages that get sent around to the receptors) might have a longer route, but eventually, the messages will come through to the receptors. A synapse might have a disconnection and needs to follow a different route to get the message to where it should go.

On this link….http://school.familyeducation.com/intelligence/teaching-methods/38519.html… you can read about learning styles. And on this link —http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm — you can take a test to see which style is your learning style! {I hope these links are still active by the time you use it. Sometimes, links get inactive for various reasons, over time.}

This newspaper article is from the London newspaper: London Lite. Please click on the newspaper-image to have a larger view to read it. It also says that Teachers in England identify too many children with Hyperactivity and they should get more  help [or training] to know how to identify these children.

I was lucky to be one of the last Teachers in South Africa to complete the course, that Teachers in South Africa needed to be able to teach children in our ‘Support Classes‘  – these were classes to support the child with learning difficulties until they were ready to go back in mainstream. These classes were based at the school and not at a different location. This qualification was called MBD and later renamed to Neurological Learning Disabilities. 

Depending on the problem/disorder that was identified, the child could be placed back into mainstream after a year in the Support Class, but sometimes it took about 2 years. Most children went back to mainstream after two years. Today some schools have an SEN-class with about 20 children,  but the teacher teaches, as usual, in groups and she doesn’t work on a particular individual designed programme – like in the smaller Support Class.

That was my dream, to work with those children in a Support Class and my dream was scattered into pieces when our ‘lovely and wonderful‘  Government (of the time in 1998) started closing down those classes.  It was very sad for us as Teachers to know that we were the last bunch for that particular course.

The current course, I have been told – is more like Remedial Education, which was one of my academic subjects during my time as a trainee-teacher. It sounds like a dumb down course, after talks with some tutors at FE.  What made this course very difficult for us, was the in depth study of the brain and how it functions – almost like a medical course! I had to know the brain inside out, upside down. Plus all the extensive study work – assignments and written exams.  The practical part was in your second year, when you had to work with a child individually on a weekly basis – for an hour. With full time teaching, it was very hard, because we were not allowed to buy any resources. I agree with the reasons: Every child is unique and different and every child’s learning difficulty is different. Every child is an individual and NO resource has what you need for an individual child with an individual problem. Yes, you get TONS of resources with 1 page here, one page there about the problem, but not a single book from page 1 – 30 to suit a particular child with a particular learning difficulty. 

I want to stress it out, that you shouldn’t look at the list of symptoms and think that your child has got at least one or two of the symptoms and that classifies your child as a child with hyperactivity! Only if there are at least 10 or more of the symptoms, I would advise you to speak to an expert. Your child needs to be observed over a period of time by professional people, who know what they need to be looking at and see your child as a whole. [A one-off observation is NOT enough!] Some children are very easy identifiable but some children need to be observed over a longer period of time. Every child is different and every child responses differently in particular situations, therefore, he/she can not be observed in an hour’s session or in a day’s time. You need to observe the child in different situations – busy with different tasks. 

My experience with children starting the new year to play chess was also an eye opener. You can immediately see which child will be able to focus on the game and will stay focus! As chess is a game where you have to sit still, focus on the game…that means tons of concentration! If you think your child has got concentration-problems, let him play chess! But, don’t punish him with chess if he doesn’t want to play it! He needs to enjoy the game! Chess is fun!

The following book is a book I can recommend strongly. 

Learning Disabilities: Theories and diagnoses and teaching strategies – the ‘Bible’ of our course.


The best book! This was my teaching ‘bible’!  See this link for the book on the previous image



ADHD: Overview
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), sometimes inaccurately referred to as ADD (There is no clinical term by this name) is a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolesence. In the United States, approximately 3 – 5% of children are diagnosed with this disorder currently, with the peak around ages 8-9 years of age., with approximately 50% of cases diagnosed before age 4. The ratio of males to females is 3 males for every 1 female diagnosed.

There are 4 recognized types of ADHD. They are: ADHD – predominantly inattentive type; ADHD – predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type; ADHD – combined type (inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity); and ADHD – Not otherwise specified.

Some of the symptoms of ADHD – hyperactive-impulsive type include: overactivity, impulse inhibition, language disorders, rejection by peers, aggressiveness, and conduct disorders. These children are generally referred for their behaviors early in their schooling or by their parents, and the symptoms have a high chance of persistence. More males than females have this subtype of disorder. Thus, the younger the age a child is diagnosed, the greater the chance they will be diagnosed with ADHD – hyperactive-impulsive subtype.

Some of the symptoms of ADHD- inattentive type include: sluggishness, organization, subtle deficits, social withdrawl, anxiety and depression. These children are generally referred for learning disabilities later in school, and have a greater chance for adjustment. Males and females have a more equal chance of being afflicted by this subtype of the disorder. Those diagnosed in their teen years are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD – inattentive subtype.

There is a high level of correlation between children with ADHD and other psychiatric illnesses. This included illnesses ranging from behavioral, mood, family, anxiety, cognitive, social to school functioning, with the greatest increase in those with the ADHD – combines subtype. 45% of those with ADHD ADHD exhibit symptoms of OppositionalDefiant Disorder, and 25% Conduct Disorder. Younger children are more at risk for social phobia, while adolescent children are at risk for depression.

 The symptoms of ADHD change over time. As children enter adolescence, ADHD is persistent, although the diagnosis appears to change from ADHD – hyperactivity-impulsive or ADHD – combined to one of ADHD- inattentive. This is possibly due to the hormonal changes. At this point, only 70-80% still meet the full criteria for ADHD, lowering the percentage of teenagers with ADHDto 1-2%. Entering Adulthood, the estimates range from 30 to 70% of those diagnosed as a child still meeting the full criteria, though there is general agreement that those who do meet the criteria have a definite lessening of the hyperactivy-impulsivity of the disease.

Substance abuse is common among those with ADHD. 75% of males with ADHD who were not on medication are reported as having a substance abuse disorder, 25% of those on medication having a substance abuse disorder (18% of the general population has a substance abuse disorder for comparison), and adults with ADHD were 2 times as likely to develop a substance abuse disorder. They esimate that 33% of adults with ADHD abuse alcohol and 20% abuse other substances.

The primary treatment for ADHD is stimulant medications such as Ritalin or Adderal, sometimes combines with supportive psychotherapy, especially when other psychiatric disorders are present.

With appropriate psychotherapy, that focuses on controlling their environment to increase or decrease stimulation as needed, working on coping mechanisms, among other factors, approximately 50% of adults with ADHD can stop medications by some reports.

Learning Disabilities
Imagine having important needs and ideas to communicate, but being unable to express them. Perhaps feeling bombarded by sights and sounds, unable to focus your attention. Or trying to read or add but not being able to make sense of the letters or numbers.

You may not need to imagine. You may be the parent or teacher of a child experiencing academic problems, or have someone in your family diagnosed as learning disabled. Or possibly as a child you were told you had a reading problem called dyslexia or some other learning handicap.

Although different from person to person, these difficulties make up the common daily experiences of many learning disabled children, adolescents, and adults. A person with a learning disability may experience a cycle of academic failure and lowered self-esteem. Having these handicaps–or living with someone who has them–can bring overwhelming frustration.

But the prospects are hopeful. It is important to remember that a person with a learning disability can learn. The disability usually only affects certain limited areas of a child’s development. In fact, rarely are learning disabilities severe enough to impair a person’s potential to live a happy, normal life.

This booklet is provided by the NationalInstitute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Federalagency that supports research nationwide on the brain, mentalillnesses, and mental health. Scientists supported by NIMH are dedicated to understanding the workings and interrelationships of the various regions of the brain, and to finding preventions and treatments to overcome brain dysfunctions that handicap people in school, work, and play.

The booklet provides up–to-date information on learning disabilities and the role of NIMH-sponsored research in discovering underlying causes and effective treatments. It describes treatment options, strategies for coping, and sources of information and support. Among these sources are doctors, specialeducation teachers, and mental health professionals who can help identify learning disabilities and recommend the right combination of medical, psychosocial, and educationaltreatment.

In this booklet, you’ll also read the stories of Susan, Wallace, and Dennis, three people who have learning disabilities. Although each had a rough start, with help they learned to cope with their handicaps. You’ll see their early frustrations, their steps toward getting help, and their hopes for the future.

The stories of Susan, Wallace, and Dennis are representative of people with learning disabilities, but the characters are not real. Of course, people with learning disabilities are not all alike, so these stories may not fit any particular individual.

What Is a Learning Disability?
Unlike other disabilities, such as paralysis or blindness, a learning disability (LD) is a hidden handicap. A learning disability doesn’t disfigure or leave visible signs that would invite others to be understanding or offer support. A woman once blurted to Wallace, “You seem so intelligent–you don’t look handicapped!”

LD is a disorder that affects people’s ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways–as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control, or attention. Such difficulties extend to schoolwork and can impede learning to read or write, or to do math.

Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions that, in some cases, affect many parts of a person’s life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and sometimes even friendships and play. In some people, many overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives.

Please click HEREto read about the different types.

What Causes Learning Disabilities?
Genetic Factors — The fact that learning disabilities tend to run in families indicates that there may be a genetic link. For example, children who lack some of the skills needed for reading, such as hearing the separate sounds of words, are likely to have a parent with a related problem. However, a parent’s learning disability may take a slightly different form in the child. A parent who has a writing disorder may have a child with an expressive language disorder. For this reason, it seems unlikely that specific learning disorders are inherited directly. Possibly, what is inherited is a subtle brain dysfunction that can in turn lead to a learning disability.

There may be an alternative explanation for why LD might seem to run in families. Some learning difficulties may actually stem from the family environment. For example, parents who have expressive language disorders might talk less to their children, or the language they use may be distorted. In such cases, the child lacks a good model for acquiring language and therefore, may seem to be learning disabled.

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use — Many drugs taken by the mother pass directly to the fetus. Research shows that a mother’s use of cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during pregnancy may have damaging effects on the unborn child. Therefore, to prevent potential harm to developing babies, the U.S. Public Health Service supports efforts to make people aware of the possible dangers of smoking, drinking, and using drugs.

Scientists have found that mothers who smoke during pregnancy may be more likely to bear smaller babies. This is a concern because small newborns, usually those weighing less than 5 pounds, tend to be at risk for a variety of problems, including learning disorders.

Alcohol also may be dangerous to the fetus’ developing brain. It appears that alcohol may distort the developing neurons. Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy has been linked to fetal alcohol syndrome, a condition that can lead to low birth weigh, intellectual impairment, hyperactivity, and certain physical defects. Any alcohol use during pregnancy, however, may influence the child’s development and lead to problems with learning, attention, memory, or problem solving. Because scientists have not yet identified “safe” levels, alcohol should be used cautiously by women who are pregnant or who may soon become pregnant.

Drugs such as cocaine–especially in its smokable form known as crack–seem to affect the normal development of brain receptors. These brain cell parts help to transmit incoming signals from our skin, eyes, and ears, and help regulate our physical response to the environment. Because children with certain learning disabilities have difficulty understanding speech sounds or letters, some researchers believe that learning disabilities, as well as ADHD, may be related to faulty receptors. Current research points to drug abuse as a possible cause of receptor damage.

Please click HERE to read more about it.

Symptom Description…ADHD Behavioral Checklist
Trouble attending to work that child understands well
Trouble attending to work that child understands poorly
Impulsive (trouble waiting turn, blurts out answers)
Hyperactive (fidgity, trouble staying seated)
Homework not handed in
Inconsistent work and effort
Poor sense of time
Does not seem to talk through problems
Easily overwhelmed
Blows up easily
Trouble switching activities
Hyper-focused at times
Poor handwriting
Certain academic tasks seem difficult (specifiy)
Seems deliberately spiteful, cruel or annoying
Anxious, edgy, stressed or painfully worried
Obsessive thoughts or fears; perseverative rituals
Irritated for hours or days on end (not just frequent, brief blow-ups)
Depressed, sad, or unhappy
Extensive mood swings
Tics: repetitive movements or noises
Poor eye contact
Does not catch on to social cues
Limited range of interests and interactions
Unusual sensitivity to sounds, touch, textures, movement or taste
Coordination difficulties

By Martin L. Kutscher, MD
Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, New York Medical College, Medical Professional
Pediatrician and Neurologist

Some of the most famous celebrities of today and yesteryear are dyslexic personalities. The owner of Virgin airlines Richard Branson, John Lennon of the music group Beatles, actors like Tom Cruise,
Robin Williams, and Whoopi Goldberg, photographer David Bailey. Even people from past times like Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Alva Edison, and Albert Einstein are also said to suffer from learning problems like Dyslexia.

Ritalin – what you need to know and please find out more too! Please note that I myself is no expert on Ritalin, this info is from a source and you can find the source at the end of the article. All I can say is: I have the experience of kids in my class who used to take Ritalin. I’m not for Ritalin, but not completely against it. Every child is a different case and only a Medical Specialist can decide what’s best for your child – in collaboration with the parents/teachers.  Don’t trust every quack of a doctor! Make sure you go to a specialist trained in the field of children with ADHD and not only learning problems. My opinion: Most kids – with problems – can go without Ritalin. All you need to do is to give your child attention and love!
dog help
This doggie needs “help” too…but not in the form of Ritalin. He needs attention and love. Image: flatrock.org.nz

What is Ritalin?

Generic Name: methylphenidate (METH il FEN i date)
Brand Names: Concerta, Metadate CD, Metadate ER, Methylin, Methylin ER, Ritalin, Ritalin LA, Ritalin-SR

Ritalin is a mild central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control.

Ritalin is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy (an uncontrollable desire to sleep). When given for attention deficit disorder, Ritalin should be an integral part of a total treatment program that includes psychological, educational, and social measures.

Ritalin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What is the most important information I should know about Ritalin?
Do not use Ritalin if you have used an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam) within the past 14 days. Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you use Ritalin before the MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body. Do not use Ritalin if you are allergic to methylphenidate or if you have glaucoma, overactive thyroid, severe high blood pressure, tics or Tourette’s syndrome, angina, heart failure, heart rhythm disorder, recent heart attack, a hereditary condition such as fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, or severe anxiety, tension, or agitation.

Ritalin may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Ritalin should never be shared with another person, especially someone who has a history of drug abuse or addiction. Keep the medication in a secure place where others cannot get to it.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Ritalin?
Do not take Ritalin if you have used an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam) within the past 14 days. Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you use Ritalin before the MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body.

Do not use Ritalin if you are allergic to methylphenidate or if you have:

glaucoma; overactive thyroid; severe high blood pressure; angina (chest pain), heart failure, heart rhythm disorder, or recent heart attack; a personal or family history of tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome; severe anxiety, tension, or agitation (methylphenidate can make these symptoms worse); or a hereditary condition such as fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency.

Some stimulants have caused sudden death in children and adolescents with serious heart problems or congenital heart defects. Tell your doctor if you have a congenital heart defect.

If you have certain other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take this medication. Before using Ritalin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:

a congenital heart defect; a personal or family history of mental illness, psychotic disorder, bipolar illness, depression, or suicide attempt; epilepsy or other seizure disorder; or a history of drug or alcohol addiction.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ritalin is harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether methylphenidate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Long-term use of Ritalin can slow a child’s growth. Tell your doctor if the child using this medication is not growing or gaining weight properly.

Do not give Ritalin to a child younger than 6 years old without the advice of a doctor.

How should I take Ritalin?
Take Ritalin exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Ritalin at least 30 minutes before a meal. The extended-release forms of methylphenidate (Ritalin-SR) can be taken with or without food.

The chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release TABLET. Swallow the tablet whole. It is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking the tablet would cause too much of the methylphenidate to be released at one time.

If you have trouble swallowing the extended-release CAPSULE, you may open the capsule and sprinkle the medicine into a spoonful of applesauce to make swallowing easier. Swallow this mixture right away without chewing. Do not save the mixture for later use. Discard the empty capsule.

Measure liquid Ritalin with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

To prevent sleep problems, take Ritalin early in the day, no later than 6:00 pm.

If you need to have any type of surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using Ritalin. You may need to stop using the medicine the day of your surgery. Store Ritalin at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep track of how many pills have been used from each new bottle of this medicine. Methylphenidate is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if any person in the household is using this medicine improperly or without a prescription.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at your next regularly scheduled time. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much Ritalin. An overdose of methylphenidate can be fatal.
Overdose can cause vomiting, agitation, tremors, muscle twitching, seizure (convulsions), confusion, hallucinations, sweating, fast or pounding heartbeat, blurred vision, dry mouth and nose, and fainting.

What should I avoid while taking Ritalin?
Ritalin can cause side effects that may impair your vision or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert.

Ritalin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop taking Ritalin and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats;

feeling like you might pass out; fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash; aggression, restlessness, hallucinations, unusual behavior, or motor tics (muscle twitches); easy bruising, purple spots on your skin; or dangerously high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain, shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure).

Less serious Ritalin side effects may include:

stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite;

vision problems, dizziness, mild headache;

sweating, mild skin rash;

numbness, tingling, or cold feeling in your hands or feet;

nervous feeling, sleep problems (insomnia); or

weight loss.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect.

What other drugs will affect Ritalin?
Before taking Ritalin, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs: a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin); clonidine (Catapres); dobutamine (Dobutrex), epinephrine (EpiPen), or isoproterenol (Isuprel); phenylbutazonie (Azolid, Butazolidin); cold/allergy medicine that contains phenylephrine (a decongestant); potassium citrate (Urocit-K, Twin-K), sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer), citric acid and potassium citrate (Cytra-K, Poly-Citra), or sodium citrate and citric acid (Bicitra, Oracit); medications to treat high or low blood pressure; stimulant medications or diet pills; seizure medicine such as phenytoin (Dilantin), phenobarbital (Luminal), primidone (Mysoline); or an antidepressant such as amitriptyline (Elavil, Etrafon), citalopram (Celexa), doxepin (Sinequan), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), imipramine (Janimine, Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor) paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), and others.

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with Ritalin. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Ritalin only for the indication prescribed.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.  Source:

More info on the following links too.




General Characteristics:
Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level.
Labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, “not trying hard enough,” or “behavior problem.”
Isn’t “behind enough” or “bad enough” to be helped in the school setting.
High in IQ, yet may not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written.
Feels dumb; has poor self-esteem; hides or covers up weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing.
Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales,
business, designing, building, or engineering.
Seems to “Zone out” or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time.
Difficulty sustaining attention; seems “hyper” or “daydreamer.”
Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.

Vision, Reading, and Spelling
Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while reading.
Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations.
Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words.
Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while reading, writing, or copying.
Seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don’t reveal a problem.
Extremely keen sighted and observant, or lacks depth perception and peripheral vision.
Reads and rereads with little comprehension.
Spells phonetically and inconsistently.

Writing and Motor Skills
Trouble with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or is illegible.
Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motion-sickness.
Can be ambidextrous, and often confuses left/right, over/under.
Math and Time Management
Has difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time.
Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers, but can’t do it on paper.
Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money.
Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math.
Memory and Cognition
Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and faces.
Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced.
Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue).
Behavior, Health, Development and Personality
Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly.
Can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet.
Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes).
Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products.
Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age.
Unusually high or low tolerance for pain.
Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection.
Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health. Read more on this next link that will open in a new window:


Please click on THIS link to read about Learning Disabilities…this is a great link and… another great link to read.

Eye problems: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dons/part_1/chapter_4.html
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