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Archive for the ‘History’ Category

Tomorrow is….again…that time of year some of us don’t like at all….because all dogs want to hide in places you don’t have in your home, some dogs get lost due to some fireworks – which sound more like bombs and dog owners want to go mad at those setting of the fireworks (bombs) unexpectedly. Sometimes it goes non-stop during the night! We had some fireworks about 5 houses away from us Saturday night…maybe it was still some people celebrating Diwali…but it’s crazy! at about 1am/2am in the morning! I mean, some people are night owls, others not. It’s not to say that if you go to bed at 3am that you don’t have to respect your neighbours or people near you.

Image: supercoolpets.com

Remember, remember the Fifth of November,
The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,
I know of no reason
Why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.


The Museum of London is holding a Guy Fawkes study day on November 5, whilst over at the Museum in Docklands, Toy Theatre retells the story of Fawkes – but with a different ending. © London Museums
Please follow
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Basically, Guy Fawkes was a man who tried to blow up the King of England by setting the Houses of Parliament ablaze in 1605. He was a member of an English Roman Catholic group who opposed the Protestant rule in England. English folks make effigies or stuffed figures representing the famous conspirator and burn them.

 Image:britannica.com

On the 5th of November, the king and his leaders were about to meet. So, Guy Fawkes men placed barrels of gunpowder in one of the cellars beneath the building where the king was having his meeting. Guy Fawkes was to light the fuse that would set off the explosion. But the plot was discovered before he had a chance to do this. The king was saved, and Guy Fawkes was hanged
Ever since, Guy Fawkes Day has been a time for merrymaking. It is a holiday that both children and adults can enjoy. And the fun really begins when darkness falls, then “the “Guy” is tossed onto the bonfire, and set alight. Then the fireworks go off, and “the Guy” goes up in a flames.

As early as 1607 there are records of bonfire celebrations on the 5th of November. James I had declared the day a public holiday in his joy at the overthrow of the Gunpowder Plot.

Children would often blacken their faces with the ashes on Bonfire night, in imitation of Guy fawkes who it was believed to have done this also, to try to camouflage himself.

Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606) sometimes known as Guido Fawkes, was a member of a group of English Roman Catholic revolutionaries who planned to carry out the Gunpowder Plot.

Although Robert Catesby was the lead figure in thinking up the actual plot, Fawkes was put in charge of executing the plan for his military and explosives experience. The plot was foiled shortly before its intended completion, as Fawkes was captured while guarding the gunpowder. Suspicion was aroused by his wearing of a coat, boots and spurs, as if he intended to leave very quickly.

Fawkes has left a lasting mark on history and popular culture. Held in the United Kingdom (and some parts of the Commonwealth) on November 5 is Bonfire Night, centred on the plot and Fawkes. He has been mentioned in popular film, literature and music by people such as Charles Dickens and John Lennon. There are geographical locations named after Fawkes, such as Isla Guy Fawkes in the Galápagos Islands and Guy Fawkes River in Australia.

The plot itself may have been occasioned by the realisation by Protestant authorities and Catholic recusants that the Kingdom of Spain was in far too much debt and fighting too many wars to assist Catholics in Britain. Any possibility of toleration by Great Britain was removed at the Hampton Court conference in 1604 when King James I attacked both extreme Puritans and Catholics. The plotters realised that no outside help would be forthcoming unless they took action themselves. Fawkes and the other conspirators rented a cellar beneath the House of Lords having first tried to dig a tunnel under the building. This would have proved difficult, because they would have had to dispose of the dirt and debris. (No evidence of this tunnel has ever been found). By March 1605, they had hidden 1800 pounds (36 barrels, or 800 kg) of gunpowder in the cellar. The plotters also intended to abduct Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth of Bohemia, the “Winter Queen”). A few of the conspirators were concerned, however, about fellow Catholics who would have been present at Parliament during the opening. One of the conspirators wrote a warning letter to Lord Monteagle, who received it on 26 October. The conspirators became aware of the letter the following day, but they resolved to continue the plot after Fawkes had confirmed that nothing had been touched in the cellar.

Lord Monteagle had been made suspicious, however; the letter was sent to the Secretary of State, who initiated a search of the vaults beneath the House of Lords in the early morning of 5 November. However, nothing was moved, in order not to alert the conspirators that the plot had been uncovered. Fawkes, who was resolved to blow himself up along with Parliament if need be, was seized as he attempted to ignite the powder charge. Peter Heywood, a resident of Heywood, Lancashire, snatched the torch from his hand at the last instant. Fawkes was arrested and taken before the privy council where he remained defiant. When asked by one of the Scottish lords what he had intended to do with so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered him, “To blow you Scotch beggars back to your own native mountains!”

When they asked for his name Fawkes replied “John Johnson”. He was tortured over the next few days. King James directed that the torture be light at first, but more severe if necessary. Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower of London at this time, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes’s confession. For three or four days Fawkes said nothing, nor divulged the names of his co-conspirators. Only when he found out that they had proclaimed themselves by appearing in arms did he succumb. The torture only revealed the names of those conspirators who were already dead or whose names were known to the authorities. Some had fled to Dunchurch, Warwickshire, where they were killed or captured. On 31 January, Fawkes and a number of others implicated in the conspiracy were tried in Westminster Hall. After being found guilty, they were taken to Old Palace Yard in Westminster and St Paul’s Yard, where they were hanged, drawn and quartered.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Fawkes. 
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Image: britian4kiwikids.org.nz

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I’m back! With Jane! as I promised in about 4 posts ago. If you’ve read the post saying…

“Let’s take the road”,
you would have read about my sudden idea – or my “on the spur of the moment”-idea to “take the road”. We drove south, to the direction to Southampton and  went on the small countryside roads. On the roadmap we saw that we were near Jane Austen’s house and I was really excited and suggested that we go there. By looking at the images at the bottom of this post, you will agree with me that the garden is beautiful! I wish my garden was as big as this one! It was interesting to visit the house, but there were many other people too and some rooms are really small and you sometimes couldn’t look at everything in detail. We weren’t allowed to take pictures indoors. There are security cameras in all the rooms, but I’ve found a website where you can view the rooms in the house too. At the bottom of my post you can follow the museum-house-link to view more of the rooms. I’ve added the basin, Jane’s room and her piano from the museum-house-site here. Information in this post was found on the sites at the bottom of this post. Do enjoy!

GOOD MANNERS!..take note!

If you’re looking for “free” images/photos and you want to use some of these in the post, which I took myself, that’s fine, but may I kindly ask you to leave me a message by asking permission when you do need to use some of the pictures.

Jane Austen, one of England’s foremost novelists, was never publicly acknowledged as a writer during her lifetime. She was born on December 16, 1775, at Steventon Rectory in Hampshire, the seventh child of a country clergyman and his wife, George and Cassandra Austen. She was primarily educated at home, benefiting from her father’s extensive library and the schoolroom atmosphere created by Mr. Austen’s live-in pupils. Her closest friend was her only sister, Cassandra, almost three years her senior.

Though Austen lived a quiet life, she had unusual access to the greater world, primarily through her brothers. Francis (Frank) and Charles, officers in the Royal Navy, served on ships around the world and saw action in the Napoleonic Wars. Henry, who eventually became a clergyman like his father and his brother James, was an officer in the militia and later a banker. Austen visited Henry in London, where she attended the theater, art exhibitions, and social events and also corrected proofs of her novels. Her brother Edward was adopted by wealthy cousins, the Knights, becoming their heir and later taking their name. On extended visits to Godmersham, Edward’s estate in Kent, Austen and her sister took part in the privileged life of the landed gentry, which is reflected in all her fiction.

As a child Austen began writing comic stories, now referred to as the Juvenilia. Her first mature work, composed when she was about 19, was a novella, Lady Susan, written in epistolary form (as a series of letters). This early fiction was preserved by her family but was not published until long after her death.
In her early twenties Austen wrote the novels that later became Sense and Sensibility (first called “Elinor and Marianne”) and Pride and Prejudice (originally “First Impressions”). Her father sent a letter offering the manuscript of “First Impressions” to a publisher soon after it was finished in 1797, but his offer was rejected by return post. Austen continued writing, revising “Elinor and Marianne” and completing a novel called “Susan” (later to become Northanger Abbey). In 1803 Austen sold “Susan” for £10 to a publisher, who promised early publication, but the manuscript languished in his archives until it was repurchased a year before Austen’s death for the price the publisher had paid her.

When Austen was 25 years old, her father retired, and she and Cassandra moved with their parents to Bath, residing first at 4 Sydney Place. During the five years she lived in Bath (1801-1806), Austen began one novel, The Watsons, which she never completed. After Mr. Austen’s death, Austen’s brothers contributed funds to assist their sisters and widowed mother. Mrs. Austen and her daughters set up housekeeping with their close friend Martha Lloyd. Together they moved to Southampton in 1806 and economized by sharing a house with Frank and his family.

In 1809 Edward provided the women a comfortable cottage in the village of Chawton, near his Hampshire manor house. This was the beginning of Austen’s most productive period. In 1811, at the age of 35, Austen published Sense and Sensibility, which identified the author as “a Lady.” Pride and Prejudice followed in 1813, Mansfield Park in 1814, and Emma in 1815. The title page of each book referred to one or two of Austen’s earlier novels—capitalizing on her growing reputation—but did not provide her name.


Chawton cottage…Jane’s house
Austen began writing the novel that would be called Persuasion in 1815 and finished it the following year, by which time, however, her health was beginning to fail. The probable cause of her illness was Addison’s Disease. In 1816 Henry Austen repurchased the rights to “Susan,” which Austen revised and renamed “Catherine.”

During a brief period of strength early in 1817, Austen began the fragment later called Sanditon, but by March she was too ill to work. She and Cassandra moved to 8 College Street in Winchester to be near her doctor. Austen died in the early hours of July 18, 1817, and a few days later was buried in Winchester Cathedral. She was 41 years old. Interestingly, Austen’s gravestone, which is visited by hundreds of admirers each year, does not even mention that she was an author.

Persuasion and Northanger Abbey were published together in December 1817 with a “Biographical Notice” written by Henry, in which Jane Austen was, for the first time in one of her novels, identified as the author of Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma. Austen’s novels have never been out of print and are often included on lists of readers’ favorites. Her surviving letters are also a source of entertainment and biographical information (Jane Austen’s Letters, edited by Deirdre Le Faye, Oxford University Press, 1995).


4 Sydney Place, Bath…where she lived too.

A Selection of Biographies
J. E. Austen-Leigh, A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections, edited by Kathryn Sutherland (Oxford University Press, 2002) (also contains biographical memoirs by Austen’s brother Henry and her nieces Anna Lefroy and Caroline Austen).

Jan Fergus, Jane Austen: A Literary Life (Macmillan Press, 1991).

Park Honan, Jane Austen: Her Life (St. Martin’s Press, 1987).

Elizabeth Jenkins, Jane Austen: A Biography (1938 and later reprints).

Deirdre Le Faye, Jane Austen: A Family Record (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Claire Tomalin, Jane Austen: A Life (Alfred A. Knopf, 1997).

Cassandra Elizabeth (1773-1845) was Jane Austen’s only sister, and her closest confidante. Over a hundred letters from Jane Austen to Cassandra have survived, giving us our most intimate look at some of the details of Jane Austen’s life. Cassandra’s fiancé Thomas Fowle died of yellow fever in the Caribbean in 1797; he had gone there as a military chaplain. Possibly Cassandra’s experience is reflected in Mrs. Musgrove and Mrs. Croft’s abomination of “long engagements” and “uncertain engagements” in Jane Austen’s Persuasion (he and Cassandra had continued engaged since about 1794, due to lack of money; see “Money and Marriage”). After this, Cassandra never married. (See Cassandra’s poem on love.) Cassandra (like Jane) frequently visited her brothers and their families, and other relatives and friends (it was the separations between herself and Jane, resulting from visits on which they did not both go, that necessitated the letters between them).

 This poem was written by her sister, Cassandra, to Jane

2. MISS AUSTEN (CASSANDRA).
Love, they say, is like a rose;
I’m sure ’tis like the wind that blows,
For not a human creature knows
How it comes or where it goes.
It is the cause of many woes:
It swells the eyes and reds the nose,
And very often changes those
Who once were friends to bitter foes.
But let us now the scene transpose
And think no more of tears and throes.
Why may we not as well suppose
A smiling face the urchin shows?
And when with joy the bosom glows,
And when the heart has full repose,
‘Tis mutual love the gift bestows.

 Jane Austen enjoyed social events, and her early letters tell of dances and parties she attended in Hampshire, and also of visits to London, Bath, Southampton etc., where she attended plays and such. There is a famous statement by one Mrs. Mitford that Jane was the “the prettiest, silliest, most affected, husband-hunting butterfly she ever remembers” (however, Mrs. Mitford seems to have had a personal jealousy against Jane Austen, and it is hard to reconcile this description with the Jane Austen who wrote The Three Sisters before she was eighteen).

In January 1805 her father died. As would have been the case for the Bennets in Pride and Prejudice if Mr. Bennet had died, the income due to the remaining family (Mrs. Austen and her two daughters, the only children still at home) was considerably reduced — since most of Mr. Austen’s income had come from clerical “livings” which lapsed with his death. So they were largely dependent on support from the Austen brothers (and a relatively small amount of money left to Cassandra by her fiancé), summing to a total of about £450 yearly. Later in 1805, Martha Lloyd (sister of James Austen’s wife) came to live with Mrs. Austen, Cassandra, and Jane, after her own mother had died.

QUOTES of Jane
I do not want people to be agreeable, as it saves me the trouble of liking them.
—-
To sit in the shade on a fine day, and look upon verdure is the most perfect refreshment.

Where so many hours have been spent in convincing myself that I am right, is there not some reason to fear I may be wrong?
—-
One half of the world cannot understand the pleasures of the other.
Jane Austen, Emma
Silly things do cease to be silly if they are done by sensible people in an impudent way.
Jane Austen, Emma
A large income is the best recipe for happiness I ever heard of.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Everybody likes to go their own way–to choose their own time and manner of devotion.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

I cannot think well of a man who sports with any woman’s feelings; and there may often be a great deal more suffered than a stander-by can judge of.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

I pay very little regard…to what any young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they have not yet seen the right person.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

If any one faculty of our nature may be called more wonderful than the rest, I do think it is memory. There seems something more speakingly incomprehensible in the powers, the failures, the inequalities of memory, than in any other of our intelligences. The memory is sometimes so retentive, so serviceable, so obedient; at others, so bewildered and so weak; and at others again, so tyrannic, so beyond control! We are, to be sure, a miracle every way; but our powers of recollecting and of forgetting do seem peculiarly past finding out.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

It will, I believe, be everywhere found, that as the clergy are, or are not what they ought to be, so are the rest of the nation.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Nothing amuses me more than the easy manner with which everybody settles the abundance of those who have a great deal less than themselves.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Oh! Do not attack me with your watch. A watch is always too fast or too slow. I cannot be dictated to by a watch.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

One cannot fix one’s eyes on the commonest natural production without finding food for a rambling fancy.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

The enthusiasm of a woman’s love is even beyond the biographer’s.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

There will be little rubs and disappointments everywhere, and we are all apt to expect too much; but then, if one scheme of happiness fails, human nature turns to another; if the first calculation is wrong, we make a second better: we find comfort somewhere.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
We have all a better guide in ourselves, if we would attend to it, than any other person can be.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
Where any one body of educated men, of whatever denomination, are condemned indiscriminately, there must be a deficiency of information, or…of something else.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
But when a young lady is to be a heroine, the perverseness of forty surrounding families cannot prevent her. Something must and will happen to throw a hero in her way.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey

Friendship is certainly the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey

In every power, of which taste is the foundation, excellence is pretty fairly divided between the sexes.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey, 1818

For what do we live, but to make sport for our neighbours, and laugh at them in our turn?
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, 1811
Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance. If the dispositions of the parties are ever so well known to each other or ever so similar beforehand, it does not advance their felicity in the least. They always continue to grow sufficiently unlike afterwards to have their share of vexation; and it is better to know as little as possible of the defects of the person with whom you are to pass your life.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
How little of permanent happiness could belong to a couple who were only brought together because their passions were stronger than their virtue.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
I declare after all there is no enjoyment like reading! How much sooner one tires of anything than of a book! When I have a house of my own, I shall be miserable if I have not an excellent library.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice

I have no pretensions whatever to that kind of elegance which consists in tormenting a respectable man.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
Loss of virtue in a female is irretrievable; that one false step involves her in endless ruin; that her reputation is no less brittle than it is beautiful; and that she cannot be too much guarded in her behaviour towards the undeserving of the other sex.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
No one can be really esteemed accomplished who does not greatly surpass what is usually met with.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously…. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, first line.

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Basin

Jane’s bedroom

Her Piano..not her real piano, but they believe that her piano looked like this one.

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How could I resist the African Marigolds!!

 
http://www.artworksgallery.co.uk/book.html

http://www.jane-austens-house-museum.org.uk/

http://www.janeaustensociety.org.uk/

http://www.peopleandprofiles.com/ProfileLinks-28/Jane%20Austen.html?profile_id=235&type=link&st=160&linkid=28

http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html#favniece

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Round 5 can be called “The (K)nights..or is it..the day of the draws”…Click on the images for a larger view… on the second image…. Radjabov’s attention was caught by…. I wonder…by what! hehehe  On this next image you can see the end position of Kamsky and Carlsen’s game… on the side bar of the blog..you will find a “live” link where you can play through the games of the day…and on THIS LINK you will find a games-link to all the games played so far in all the finished rounds.

On these images you can see the pairings for round 6-8. Tomorrow is a free day.

baku fortress

The Fortress Wall of Old City Baku

By Fuad Akhundov
The fortress wall of the old city of Baku is a source of pride to Bakuites. Not every city with a rampart constructed at the time of the Crusaders is so well preserved. Nor do many extend for a distance of 500 meters, as Baku’s rampart does. The rampart also enabled the preservation of the medieval image of the old town, with its numerous lanes, snaking streets and the flavor of an oriental city.

Initially, two ramparts encircled Baku. The internal rampart is almost completely preserved. It was constructed by King Manuchekhr II (1120-1149). The outer wall was much lower in height, and was installed by the local ruler, Zufuqar-khan in 1608-1609. The walls were surrounded by a deep moat that could be filled by underground water in times of danger.

The khanate of Baku (a kind of Muslim duchy) was annexed to the Russian Empire in 1806. The fortress walls were last used for defense in 1826. Cannons mounted on the walls repelled a last, desperate Persian attack.

At the beginning of industrial exploitation of oil in the 1870’s, Baku grew rapidly. In 1859, the population of the city barely exceeded 13,500 inhabitants, most of who lived inside the old city walls. By 1903, there were 143,000 Bakuites, and by 1913, the “black gold” had increased the population to more than 214,000.

The tiny medieval fortress was, of course, too small to hold all these people. So the outer rampart was taken down in 1884, along with the wall on side of the old city facing the sea. Stones from this wall were used to renovate the inner wall.

But Bakuites did not want to lose the old, outer wall forever. The primary entrance to the old city, Shemakha Gate had one gate in the outer wall, and one in the inner wall. So, as the outer was dissembled, stonemasons skillfully inserted a copy of the outer entrance into the inner wall, side by side with the original inside gate. A visitor with a sharp eye for color will notice that the stones of the left entrance are slightly whiter. City residents renamed the gates “Gosha-Gala Gapysy,” meaning, in Azeri, the Twin Gates. This is the only double entrance among the five gates of the fortress wall.

The most interesting detail over both entrances is the oldest coat of arms of Baku. It is composed of two lions, and the head of a bull with two discs around the bull’s head. The German traveler, Kempfer, deciphered the symbols in 1863, as follows:

Lions were often used in Oriental heraldry as symbols of strength. The bull and the cow were sacred animals to the Zoroastrians (even today, killing these animals is prohibited in India). The discs symbolized the sun and moon. So, Kempfer concluded, the lions (that is, the fortress walls) protect the bull (i.e., the city) during day (the sun) and night (the moon).

This oldest emblem of Baku probably did not meet with favor when Islam arrived in Baku, and was at some point consigned to history. Other emblems took their place until the 1880’s. Then, a new coat of arms was designed with three torch flames representing the Zoroastrian tradition. But the way the flames were carved in the limestone of the mayor’s office, they resemble moneybags. So people used to joke that the emblem had nothing to do with fire, but represented the wealth of Baku during the first oil boom.
Source:
Read HERE MORE! about Baku.

see some wonderful photos about Baku on: bakuphotos.blogspot.com
Read on THIS LINK about the world’s 25 dirtiest cities, which Baku is apparently one of them. Baku 2016 Olympic…Baku is officially bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics …read on the link more…

Pollution
The World’s Dirtiest Cities
Tiffany M. Luck 02.26.08, 3:15 PM ET

Unless you’re in the oil business, there’s little reason to brave the choking pollution of Baku, Azerbaijan. Fetid water, oil ponds and life-threatening levels of air pollution emitted from drilling and shipping land the former Soviet manufacturing center at the bottom of this year’s list as the world’s dirtiest city.

Baku is bad, but far from alone. For residents of the 25 cities on this year’s list, black plumes of smoke, acid rain and free-flowing sewage are part of everyday life. Not as immediately visible: the impact on the population’s health and life expectancy.

To see which cities in the world were dirtiest, we turned to Mercer Human Resource Consulting’s 2007 Health and Sanitation Rankings. As part of their 2007 Quality of Life Report, they ranked 215 cities worldwide based on levels of air pollution, waste management, water potability, hospital services, medical supplies and the presence of infectious disease.

All cities are positioned against New York, the base city with an index score of 100. For the Health and Sanitation Rankings, the index scores range from the worst on the list–Baku, Azerbaijan, with a score of 27.6–to the best on the list–Calgary, Canada, with a score of 131.7.

Lead-poisoned air lands Dhaka, Bangladesh, the No. 2 spot on the list. Traffic congestion in the capital continues to worsen with vehicles emitting fatal amounts of air pollutants daily, including lead. The World Bank-funded Air Quality Management Project aims to help.

“Addressing air pollution is the easiest way to be able to fix someone’s well-being because we’re always breathing, and there are all sorts of harmful particulates in the air,” says Richard Fuller, founder of the New York-based Blacksmith Institute, a nonprofit dedicated to solving the pollution problems of the developing world. “In fact, the biggest pathway for lead poisoning is particulates in the air. So in areas with a lot of air pollution, shutting down the worst forces of these types of pollution really does make a difference.”

Nos. 3 and 4 on this year’s list are the capital cities of Madagascar and Haiti, respectively. Antananarivo, Madagascar and Port au Prince, Haiti, both face the challenge of a rapidly growing urban population and the ever-growing need for efficient water and waste management.

Mexico City, Mexico, ranks No. 5 on this year’s list. Residents can thank industrial and automobile emissions for air quality so bad that city ozone levels fail to meet World Health Organization standards an estimated 300 days of the year. But things could be worse.

“Mexico City has actually seen great improvement recently in terms of air pollution,” says Dave Calkins, founder of the Sierra Nevada Air Quality Group and former chief of the Air Planning Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in San Francisco. “So much so that the government actually has to campaign to let everyone know that pollution is still a problem.”

Economies suffer, too. Health care costs and lost productivity drag on business. Companies also face added costs in the form of remuneration packages when relocating employees and their families to some of these cities, noted Slagin Parakatil, senior researcher at Mercer. Cost-benefit analysis certainly suggests making progress toward cleanup. According to a study done by WaterAid, for every $1 spent on improved sanitation, the benefit equals $9 resulting from decreased cost of health care and increased productivity.

“If you do the numbers,” says Fuller, “to clean up the worst of it doesn’t really cost that much. It’s the 90/10 rule. To do 90% of the work only costs 10% of the money. It’s the last 10% of the cleanup that costs 90% of the money. For relatively little, we can do an awful lot to save a whole lot of lives.” Source: See the link in the start of this article.
 
Baku Round 5 from the Fide website

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This is chess game 26!  In this game I played black. This was really a tough game….one of those challenging games. If you play through the game you will see why. Luckily…as always… I had a Knight-to-the-rescue. I will even sacrifice a Rook just to have my Knight! Exactly like in real life… that’s why Knights are there! hehehe… look at move 80! Fork! and from there one…it was really easy. If you play through the game, you will see why my opponent named this game after this nursery rhyme! See if you can work out why I couldn’t really move away from that advanced Pawn of my opponent…He resigned this game at the end. Enjoy playing through it by clicking on the link.

arturo1113 vs. Nikita1


Ring a-ring o’ roses,
A pocketful of posies.
a-tishoo!, a-tishoo!.
We all fall down.

This nursery rhyme is about the black death…also called “The Plague”. The symptoms of the plague included a raised red rash on the skin (Ring a ring o’ rosies) and violent sneezing (Atishoo, Atishoo) A pouch of sweet smelling herbs or posies were carried due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells. The death rate was over 60% and the plage was only halted by the
 Great Fire of London in September 1666
which killed the rats which carried the disease which had been transmitting it to water sources. Read about Samuel Pepys and his connection with the Fire of London. Read on this link about the black death which was also called “The Plague”  and  on THIS LINK to read more about Ring-a-ring-a-rosie.
 

Artist: Louise Mansfield : Irishpaintings.com

famousquotes.me.uk

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Flag of 1928-1994
Following the Union of South Africa , that is the joining if the former colonies of Natal, Cape, Transvaal and Orange River on 31 May 1910, South Africa used defaced red and blue ensigns. Having suffered defeat in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), many South Africans
particularly of Boer extraction found these flags unacceptable. Discussions about
a new flag had taken place from time to time but were interrupted by such pressing issues as World War I and achieving Dominion Status within the British Empire etc. and it was only in 1925 that the matter began to receive renewed attention. The Balfour Declaration adopted at the Imperial Conference of 1926 defined in general terms the mutual constitutional relationship of the self-governing members of the British Empire (later Commonwealth) whereby Great Britain and the dominions were “equal in status, in no way subordinate to one another” and as such South Africa, as an independent state was entitled to a flag of its own. The flag issue in South Africa was also considered along with the question of nationality.

The issue of inclusion of the Union Jack proved to be a very emotional subject, with the English-speakers on the one side demanding its inclusion and the Afrikaners (Boers) seeing its a symbol of British imperialism demanding it be excluded! A number of proposals were put forward but it was not until the Princevlag design based on the House of Orange that consensus began to emerge. This design was based on the commonly held view that Jan van Riebeeck has raised an orange, white and blue horizontal tricolour when he arrived at the Cape in April 1652. The original design had a quartered shield in the centre, each quarter having a symbol to represent the territories making up the Union. Various other designs were submitted to a Parliamentary Committee which had been established to resolve the issue but none found favour.
Read on this link HERE more and it is really worth visiting…very extensive site with information/flags/history on South Africa ….

This song, unfortunately in Afrikaans, is beautiful… “oranje”… = orange…”blou” = blue…it’s a song to motivate people in South Africa to stand together… and to keep spirits high… to have hope….worth listening even if you don’t understand…beautiful images of the country you will enjoy… This flag is…of course you know perhaps….also our country’s old flag.. and we used to call it the “Oranje Blanje Blou”….

 

ORANJE-BLANJE-BLOU

Woorde: EITEMAL, na “O.D., hoch in Ehren”
Musiek: HENRY HUGH PIERSON

Die Hoogland is ons woning,
die land van son en veld,
waar woeste vryheidswinde waai
oor graf van meenge held.
Die ruimtes het ons siel gevoed,
ons kan g’n slawe wees,
want vryer as die arendsvlug,
die vlugte van ons gees.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

Die ruwe bergereekse
staan hoog teen awendlug,
soos gryse ewighede daar
versteen, verstyf in vlug.
En stewig soos die grou graniet
ons Boeretrots en -trou,
die fondament waarop ons hier
‘n nuwe nasie bou.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

Die God van onse vaders
het ons hierheen gelei,
ons dien sy grootse skeppingsplan,
solank ons Boere bly.
Ons buig ons hoof voor Hom alleen;
en as Hy ons verhoor
omgord ons bly die lendene:
Die toekoms wink daar voor.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

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On THIS LINK you can see pics of Pretoria and pics about the roads…and on THIS LINK you can see why it’s also called the Jacaranda City…and Pretoria is one of 3 capitals of SA…in case you didn’t know…it… Cape Town and Bloemfontein are the other capitals…on one of my links you can read why we have 3 capitals! On these three videos, you can follow the history of the Voortrekker Monument …and why Pretoria is called Pretoria… To me…Pretoria will be PRETORIA and not..Tshwane!! According to WIKI Tshwane comes from “black cow” or “monkey” – from the Ndebele word “tshwene”!


The words of the song on the last video…it gives me goosebumps to hear it!! When I was at school… we used to sing this song…. about  “Young South Africa”, the National Anthem, the Flag song AND the school song…every week…yes, every school in SA has got a song as part of the school ethos……. and you are very proud when singing it…you would stand to attention when singing it…it’s really a beautiful song, hope I can get a translation somewhere!  It describes the country in a beautiful way…
DIE LIED VAN JONG SUID-AFRIKA

Woorde: EITEMAL; gewysig: P. MCLACHLAN
Musiek: HUGO GUTSCHE; verwerk: DIRKIE DE VILLIERS

En hoor jy die magtige dreuning?
Oor die veld kom dit wyd gesweef:
die lied van ‘n volk se ontwaking
wat harte laat sidder en beef.
Van Kaapland tot bo in die Noorde
rys dawerend luid die akkoorde:
Dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Die klop van die Voortrekkerwawiel
het die eeue se rus verstoor;
die klank van die voorlaaierskote
het klowe en kranse gehoor.
Die diere het stil staan en luister,
die bome het bewend gefluister:
Dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Waar songloed in glorie die berge
oor hul fronsende voorhoof streel,
waar ruisende wind oor die vlaktes
met grassaad kerjakker en speel,
die land wat ons vaders gekoop het,
met bloed tot ons eie gedoop het:
Dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Die golwende veld is ons woning
en ons dak is die hemelblou;
die Vryheid alleen is ons koning,
sy wagwoord is: “Handhaaf en bou”.
Die stryd wat ons vaders begin het
sal woed tot ons sterf of oorwin het.
Dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika

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This is the family coat of arms.

Update – 5/8/2018 – I have found more info and will add it soon.

Areas where the Dutch and French Huguenots were given farms to settle.


The French Huguenots from La Rochelle

The Huguenot monument in Franschhoek (the Huguenots fled religious persecution in France, and many settled in the Cape). Today, many Afrikaner names show their French origins and I’m one of  those many South Africans. I’m busy with  a family-history-study of my ancestors and this is what I’ve found so far. This post will get updated as I find more information. Most links in this post will open in a new window.

 Update: 30/6/2013

haidee_large

The Haidee

Read HERE MORE about the French Huguenots that settled in South Africa. (This link does not work anymore!) 

Jan.09 update: Please follow this link if your surname is Celliers/Cilliers/Cillie…etc.

http://www.myheritage.com/site-33834231/cilliers-family-web-site

Josue Cellier, b. 1667, Orleans, France

Another record…Josube Cellier, b 1676, Orleans, France..

Click on THIS LINK to use the search facility to find ancestors…..
On Olivetree HERE you can see more passenger-lists…
Please click HERE for more information on the France Huguenots that came to South Africa.
And on THIS LINK you can read  more about the Religion War and French Huguenots…
This LINK HERE is a passenger ship-list of Huguenots that arrived in South Africa between 1683 and 1756.

Search THIS SITE  for more information on these records.

cellier-passengers

The REYGERSDAL arrived at Table Bay in 1700…passengers on the ship, click on the image for a clear, larger view.

NOTES:
1. Married (2) Paul Roux in 1722

2.Brother of Elizabeth Couvret. He returned to Europe in 1712 with his wife and 4 children.

Josué CELLIER
*Frankryk, Orléans c1667
+Paarl //.10.1721
xElisabeth Couvret
*Frankryk, Orléans c1676
+c1743
xxc1722 wew-Paul Roux
*Frankryk, Orange c1665
+Paarl 07.02.1723
xc1688 Claudine Seugneté
*Frankryk, Saintogne, c1671
+
(xxElisabeth Couvret)

Kinders van Josué Cellier en Elisabeth Couvret
b1 Josué =Paarl 02.01.1701 X Ongetroud, + 19.04.1770
b2 Jan *c1702, X Paarl 5.12.1728 Anna Marais weduwee van Gabriel Rossouw
b3 Pierre =Paarl 10.11.1703, +Voor 1712
b4 Elisabeth =Paarl 26.07.1705, X c1724 Pierre Malherbe
b5 Francina =Paarl 30.10.1706, X Paarl 12.04.1727 Pierre le Roux
b6 Maria =Kaapstad 07.09.1708, X Paarl 7.09.1732 Johannes Hubertus van Amsterdam XX Paarl 8.05.1735 Urbanus Sauermann van Mühlbeck
b7 Abraham =Paarl 21.09.1709, X Paarl 6.12.1744 Anna Rossouw
b8 Pieter =Stellenbosch 16.08.1711, Ongetroud, +04.12.1792
b9 Susanna =Paarl 24.09.1713, Ongetroud, +Paarl 14.07.1733
b10 Judith =Paarl 01.03.1716, Ongetroud, +Paarl 24.07.1733
b11 Magdalena =Paarl 26.12.1717, X Stellenbosch 29.04.1736 Pierre le Roux

Kinders van Paul Roux en Claudine Seugneté
1. Paul *c1689
2. Pieter *c1692
3. Hester *c1693
4. Anne =Paarl 25.12.1694
5. Joseph =Paarl 14.10.1696
6. Jeremie =Paarl 01.09.1697
7. Jean =Paarl 22.04.1699

Josué Cellier was afkomstig van Orléans, Frankryk waar hy in ongeveer 1667 gebore is. Hy was moontlik die seun van Josué Cellier en Judith Rouilly wat `n seun Nicolaas in die naburige dorpie Bazoches-en-Dunois laat doop het. Elisabeth Couvret is nege jaar later in ongeveer 1676 ook in Orléans gebore.

Bronne verskil oor wanneer Josué en Elisabeth Frankryk verlaat het. Volgens een bron in 1685, na die herroeping van die Edik van Nantes, toe Josué 18 jaar oud was en Elisabeth 9. Hierdie edik het vir bykans `n honderd jaar `n mate van godsdiensvryheid aan die Protestante verleen en die herroeping daarvan het `n oormatige vervolging van die Protestante tot gevolg gehad. Volgens `n ander bron het hulle Frankryk in 1697 verlaat na die beëindiging van die negejarige oorlog tussen Nederland en Frankryk toe hulle onderskeidelik 30 en 21 jaar oud was.

Of hulle wel in Frankryk getroud is, is onseker.

Simon van der Stel het in 1679, pas na sy aanstelling as goewerneur aan die Kaap, `n versoek gerig dat boere toegelaat moet word om na die Kaap toe te kom, maar aangesien die Kaap slegs as `n verversingspos beskou is, is sy versoek geweier. Die toenemende getal Franse vlugtelinge wat na Nederland gestroom het na die herroeping van die Edik van Nantes het egter tot `n beleidsverandering gelei wat dit vir Josué en Elisabeth moontlik gemaak het om na die Kaap te verhuis.

Persone wat oorweeg sou word om na die Kaap te gaan, moes selfonderhoudend wees en Josué met sy kennis van landbou, wynbou en sy vaardigheid as timmerman het hieraan voldoen. Verskeie voorwaardes is ook gestel, onder andere:
– Hulle sou kosteloos op die skepe van die handelsmaatskappy die Verenigde Oos-Indiese Kompanjie (VOC) vervoer word, mits `n eed van getrouheid aan die Kompanjie afgelê word.

– Geen bagasie, behalwe dié wat vir eie gebruik nodig was, kon saamgeneem word nie. Op kontantgeld was daar egter geen beperking nie.
– Landbouers sou soveel grond kry as wat hulle kon bewerk, terwyl landbougereedskap, saadkoring en vee aan hulle verkoop sou word.
– Hulle sou verplig wees om vir vyf jaar aan die Kaap te bly, maar kon met die nodige motivering `n versoek tot die Here XVII, die hoogste gesag van die VOC, rig om die tydperk te verkort.
– Indien hulle na vyf jaar weer na Nederland wou terugkeer, moes hulle teen `n vasgestelde tarief die reisgeld betaal en kon hulle niks uit die Kaap saamneem nie, behalwe dit wat hulle aan hul persoon gehad het.

Die eerste Franse vlugtelinge vertrek einde 1687 uit Nederland en in 1699 is die VOC versoek om nie meer Franse Kaap toe te stuur nie. Dit is dus onseker of Josué en Elisabeth onder die voorgemelde voorwaardes na die Kaap gekom het en of hulle dit op eie inisiatief gedoen het. Hulle seil op 2 Mei 1700 aan boord van die Reygersdaal vanaf Goeree, `n Suid-Hollandse eiland. Ook aan boord was Elisabeth se broer Paul Couvret, sy vrou Anne Valleté en hul dogtertjie.

Vir beter beskerming het `n aantal skepe gewoonlik saam uitgevaar, maar daar kon nie vasgestel word of enige ander skepe saam met die Reygersdaal uitgevaar het nie. `n Reis na Kaap het in daardie jare enigiets van drie tot ses maande geduur en die Reygersdaal arriveer Saterdag 21 Augustus 1700 in die Kaap, maar moes tot die volgende middag voor die hawe lê. ‘Op de naarmiddag’ van Sondag 22 Augustus anker hulle in die hawe ‘onder een slap zuyd west luchtje’.

Oor die algemeen was die skepe waarmee die vlugtelinge oorgekom het maar klein en het passasiers gewoonllik hutte op die agterdek gehad sonder enige wasgeriewe. Voedsel wat aan boord geneem is, is noukeurig deur die VOC gespesifiseer – brood, ingelegde vleis, stokvis en soutvis, ingelegde haring, bier, Franse en Spaanse wyn, brandewyn, botter, olie, asyn, lemmetjiesap, stroop vir ontbyt en vir die bier, pruimedante, rysgort, grou- en groenertjies, mosterdsaad, mierikwortel en sout. Kos, water en bier het betreklik gou bederf terwyl wyn langer goed gebly het.

Skeurbuik, wat hoofsaaklik deur die gebrek aan vars voedsel veroorsaak is, het algemeen voorgekom en het bygedra tot `n hoë persentasie sterfgevalle tydens `n seereis. Verder was daar nog gevare soos storms, brand en aanvalle deur seerowers. Die skipper van die Reygersdaal, Martin de Jeught, rapporteer met hul aankoms in die Kaap slegs een sterfgeval en agt siekes aan boord wat die indruk skep dat Josué en Elisabeth se vaart sonder enige buitengewone voorvalle afgelê is. Twee weke na hul aankoms sit die Reygersdaal sy vaart na Batavia (Djakarta op die Indonisiese eiland Java) voort.

Uit die huwelik tussen Josué en Elisabeth word elf kinders gebore, vyf seuns en ses dogters. Slegs Pierre sterf as kind terwyl Susanna en Judith binne tien dae van mekaar sterf; Susanna op 20-jarige ouderdom op 14 Julie 1733 en Judith op 19-jarige ouderdom op 24 Julie 1733. Die oudste en jongste seuns Josué en Pieter is nooit getroud nie en sterf respektiewelik op 69-jarige en 81-jarige ouderdom. Die twee seuns deur wie die vanne Cellier, Celliers, Cillié en Cilliers voortgedra sou word, is Jan wat in 1728 met die weduwee Anna Marais trou en Abraham wat in 1744 met sy broer Jan se stiefdogter Anna Rossouw trou. Elisabeth trou in ongeveer 1724 met Pierre Malherbe, Francina in 1727 met Pierre le Roux en Magdalena in 1736 ook met `n Pierre le Roux, `n neef van haar suster Francina se man. Maria trou in 1732 met Johannes Hubertus, `n Hollander, en na sy dood hertrou sy in 1735 met Urbanus Sauermann, `n Duitser – sy is die enigste kind wat nie met `n Hugenote-afstammeling getroud is nie.

Die Paarl se kerk waarin Josué en Elisabeth se oudste kinders gedoop is, was nie veel meer as `n saaltjie wat die Franse aanmekaar getimmer het nie en is na geweldige storms in Oktober 1716 so beskadig dat dit onbruikbaar was. Totdat die nuwe kerk in 1720 in gebruik geneem is, is dienste aan huis van die predikant ds Van Aken gehou en hul jongste kind Magdalena is moontlik hier gedoop. Pieter en Maria is moontlik in Stellenbosch en Kaapstad gedoop omdat daar vanaf 1707 tot 1714 geen predikant in die Paarl was nie. Die twee kinders wat wel gedurende hierdie tyd in die Paarl gedoop is, is moontlik deur `n besoekende predikant gedoop.

Beide Josué en Elisabeth, soos talle ander Hugenote, was ongeletterd. Alhoewel sommige geleer het om hulle naam te teken en ook om te skryf, was Josué en Elisabeth skynbaar nie onder diegene nie. In 1720 maak Josué sy merk wanneer hy hul gesamentlike testament teken en wanneer Elisabeth in 1724 `n nuwe testament opstel, teken sy ook deur haar merk te maak.

Die peil van onderwys aan die Kaap was laag en Paul Roux, met wie Elisabeth na Josué se dood sou trou, word as onderwyser van die Franse gemeenskap in die Paarl aangestel. Huismeesters is ook deur sommige gesinne in diens geneem en hul vergoeding het meestal bestaan uit 8 tot 14 gulden per maand, 1 tot 2 pond tabak, voedsel, drank, goeie huisvesting en soms klere aan die einde van die jaar. Jacob Naudé wat in 1718 as matroos in die Kaap aangekom het, was eers huismeester by Pierre Joubert teen 10 gulden en `n halwe pond tabak per maand en vanaf 1719 tot 1720 huismeester by Josué Cellier teen 10 gulden en een pond tabak per maand.

In haar testament van 1724 stel Elisabeth vir Jan as voog oor sy minderjarige broers en susters aan en bepaal dat hy ‘verpligt zijn’ om hulle eerlik op te voed en ook om hulle te laat leer, lees, skryf of `n handvaardigheid te laat aanleer. Dokumente wat deur vier van haar kinders geteken is, is teëgekom; Francina teken as beide Fransina Cellie en Fransina Celie, Maria as Marie cellier; Magdalena as Madalena Cellie en Pieter as Piter Seliee.

Of Josué en Elisabeth Hollands matig was, is onbekend, maar hul kinders sou weens regeringsbeleid Hollands moes aanleer. Hierdie beleid het veroorsaak dat die Franse taal aan die Kaap in onbruik geraak en uitgesterf het. Nadat die eerste predikant van die Paarl, Pierre Simond, die Kaap in 1702 verlaat het, verklaar Goewerneur Willem Adriaan van der Stel hom bereid om te sorg dat die Franse taal in onbruik raak deur die gebruik van Hollands op skool en in die kerk in te stel. Vertoë is gerig omdat min mense `n preek in Hollands kon volg en daarna is twee dienste op `n Sondag toegelaat, een in Hollands en een in Frans, maar na 1726 word daar nie weer melding gemaak van Franse dienste nie.

Josué en Elisabeth vestig hulle aanvanklik op die plaas Het Kruys Pad (Kruispad), naby die huidige voorstad Brackenfell, waar hulle tot ten minste 1709 gewoon het. In Januarie 1708 ‘ten huijse van Josua Sellier geleegen aant kruispad tusschen de bottelerije en tijgerbergen’ het daar twaalf mense ‘zaaten en dronken’. `n Vryswarte wat op sy eie grond geboer het, Pieter Harmensz, algemeen bekend as Brasman, kom toe daar aan en beskuldig vir Jacob Bourbonnais, een van Josué se gaste, daarvan dat hy sy sweep gesteel het. `n Onderonsie ontstaan en Brasman steek vir Bourbonnaise met `n mes en snou hom toe : ‘Jou donders kind, daar heb je genoeg daar is bloed’. `n Eis vir skadevergoeding word ingestel, Bourbonnaise vir ongemak en pyn asook verlore tyd en Jacob Bisseux, in wie se huis Bourbonnais verpleeg is, vir sy verpleging en gepaardgaande uitgawes. Brasman se vonnis was om gegesel te word, skadevergoeding en kostes te betaal en hy word lewenslank uit die Kaap verban.

Nog `n insident waarby Josué betrokke was, was die ontevredenheid oor Goewerneur Willem Adriaan van der Stel se administrasie. Aanvanklik is VOC-amptenare nie toegelaat om te boer nie omdat hul mededinging die boere finansieel kon knak, maar teen die tyd dat Josué en Elisabeth in die Kaap aankom, boer Van der Stel en bykans al die hooggeplaaste VOC-amptenare op hul eie plase. Mettertyd tree hulle ook tot die mark, wat alreeds swak was, toe en bly die gewone boere met hul podukte sit. In 1706 word `n klagskrif van ondermeer omkopery en afpersing teen Van der Stel en verskeie amptenare opgestel en Elisabeth se broer Paul Couvret is een van die persone wat dit onderteken. Op sy beurt stel Van der Stel `n getuigskrif op wat tevredenheid met sy administrasie uitspreek en ook van sy goeie karakter en eerlikheid getuig. Persone wat weier om te teken word ondermeer gedreig dat hulle van hul grond ontneem sou word. Josué teken die getuigskrif – die inskrywing by sy se merk lui : ‘het merke van Josue Siljee’. Die meeste van die Hugenote wat geteken het, het later verklaar dat alhoewel hulle ontevrede was met Van der Stel se wanbestuur hulle bang was dat hulle hul grond sou verloor. Moontlik was dit ook by Josué `n oorweging aangesien hy op hierdie stadium nog nie sy eie plaas besit het nie. Die uiteinde van die klagskrif was ondermeer dat Willem Adriaan van der Stel en van sy volgelinge van hul poste onthef en na Holland teruggeroep is.

In 1709 word Josué nog in die opgaafrolle van die Distrik Stellenbosch, waaronder Kruispad geresorteer het, opgeneem. Geen opgaafrolle het vir die jare 1710-1711 behoue gebly nie en in 1712 word hy in die opgaafrolle van die Distrik Drakenstein opgeneem. Het Kruys Pad word op 15 Maart 1712 aan Josué toegeken, maar daar kan nie veel van hierdie datum afgelei word nie aangesien plase wat aan boere toegesê is, d.w.s toestemming verleen is om die grond te bewoon en te benut, dikwels eers etlike jare later aan hulle toegeken is, d.w.s hul eiendom geword het. In die Paarl koop hy die plaas Orléans (57 morg 300 vk roede) wat op 11 Oktober 1713 op sy naam oorgedra word. Hier boer hy en Elisabeth tot en met hulle dood.

‘n Dokter (chirurgyn) Gideon le Grande het joernaal gehou van sy mediese dienste en `n gedeelte van sy joernaal vir 1710 het behoue gebly. Op 9 Februarie 1710 skryf hy medikasie van scafran vir Josué Cellier voor, maar hierdie inskrywing is later weer doodgetrek. Wat scafran is, is onbekend en waarom die inskrywing later doodgetrek is, is ook onbekend. Van die siektes wat aangeteken is, is bloedvloeiing, geswelde voete, keelseer, kopseer, kortasem, krampe in die ingewande, longsiekte, maagpyn, niere, sooibrand, snydings, sweer en verkoue. Bloedlating as behandeling kom die meeste voor, ondermeer vir pyn aan die arm en skouer; daarna purgasies van sennablare en nieskruid.

In 1712 keer Elisabeth se broer Paul Couvret en sy gesin na `n verblyf van twaalf jaar aan die Kaap terug na Europa. Hy het op die plaas Goede Hoop, 60 morg, in die Paarl geboer.

Die Paarl se lidmaatregisters is waarskynlik sedert die stigting van die gemeente in 1691 bygehou, maar die eerste register wat behoue gebly het, is dié van 1715. Onder ‘Der Ledematen die de Predikant Van Aken in die Kerke van Drakenstyn in den jare 1715 gevonden heeft’, was ‘Jossue Sellier en syne vrouw Elizabeth Couvret’ en die totale aantal lidmate is as 104 aangeteken. Teen 1725 het die aantal lidmate tot 146 gegroei.

Oor Josué se boerderyaktiwiteite gedurende sy eerste paar jaar aan die Kaap is min bekend weens die onvolledigheid van die opgaafrolle. In 1704 besit hy slegs 4 koeie, maar teen 1709 verbou hy reeds 8 000 wingerdstokke, besit hy 5 perde en 18 beeste en het hy ook 60 mud koring geoes. In latere jare besit hy tot 300 skape en produseer jaarliks tot 3 lêers (1 731 liter) wyn.

Josué sterf op 54-jarige ouderdom in Oktober 1721 en laat die 45-jarige Elisabeth agter met tien kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 4 en 20 jaar. Van die items wat in sy boedelinventaris gelys word, met die waarde in guldens Indiese valuta aangedui, is:
Die plaas Orleient 2 900
15 beeste 450
1 wa 100
en 16 lêers wyn 480.

Elisabeth hertrou in ongeveer 1722 met die 57-jarige wewenaar Paul Roux. Hul presiese huweliksdatum is onbekend aangesien die Paarl se huweliksregisters vir hierdie tydperk verlore is. Paul en Elisabeth kon nie baie lank getroud gewees het nie aangesien hy op 7 Februarie 1723 oorlede is, sestien maande na haar eerste man. Na Paul se dood het Elisabeth nie weer hertrou nie.

Paul Roux was `n bekwame man wat kort na sy aankoms in die Kaap in 1688 aangestel is as onderwyser, voorleser en sieketrooster vir die Franse gemeenskap in die Paarl, poste wat hy tot sy dood toe beklee het. Saam met Pierre Simond was hy gereken as een van die grootste stryders vir die gebruik en behoud van die Franse taal aan die Kaap. Teen die tyd dat hy en Elisabeth getroud is, was die kinders uit sy eerste huwelik almal reeds mondig. Hy het ‘n kleinerige plasie Oranje, 2 morg 250 vk roede, in die Paarl besit wat na sy dood na sy seun Jeremie Roux gegaan het. Vir meer inligting kyk ook onder stamvader Paul Roux.

Na haar tweede man se dood, sit Elisabeth en haar vier seuns die boerdery op die plaas voort. Verdere hulp met die boerdery word verkry met die aankoop van haar eerste slaaf in 1728 en teen 1743 besit sy vier slawe, een slavin en twee slawekinders. Vanaf 1732 tot 1734 werk haar skoonseun, Johannes Hubertus, as kneg op die plaas. In ‘n kontrak wat op 27 September 1732 tussen hulle gesluit is, onderneem hy om haar ‘voor den tyd van een geheel Jaar trouw en naarstig te dienen als knegt’ teen `n maandelikse betaling van twaalf Caabse guldens asook huisvesting en voedsel. Hierdie kontrak word op 26 Oktober 1733 vir nog `n jaar verleng. Teen 1743, kort voor haar dood, word 10 lêers (5 773 liter) wyn geproduseer en met tye was daar tot 6 perde, 30 beeste en 200 skape op die plaas. Benewens koring, word rog ook gesaai.

In 1738 boer die 62-jarige Elisabeth en drie van haar seuns, Josué, Abraham en Pieter, nog op die plaas en bied hulle vir nagenoeg `n jaar skuiling aan die 39-jarige voortvlugtende Estienne Barbier, `n sersant in diens van die VOC. Estienne was ook van Orléans, Frankryk afkomstig en het in 1734 as gewone soldaat in diens van die VOC in die Kaap aangekom. In Mei 1737 lei Estienne se beskuldigings van ondermeer geldverduistering en korrupsie teen `n luitenant tot `n lastersaak en Estienne word skuldig bevind. Hy appèlleer, besef weldra dat sy appèl nie veel kans het om te slaag nie en ontsnap op 24 Maart 1738 uit die Kasteel waar hy onder arres was. Na sy ontsnapping bly hy ongestoord op Orléans, omdat die owerhede onder die indruk was dat hy hom op `n skip versteek en na Holland teruggekeer het. In Februarie 1739 verlaat hy Orléans en begin `n hoofsaaklik skriftelike veldtog teen die ongeregtighede van die owerhede. Met die ontevredenheid wat reeds in die Kaap geheers het, het hierdie veldtog die potensiaal gehad om `n burgelike opstand te begin en in Maart 1739 word hy deur die owerhede ‘vogel-vry’ verklaar – hulle soek hom, lewend of dood. Hy word eers ses maande later in hegtenis geneem, verhoor en ter dood veroordeel. Hierdie vonnis, wat in die openbaar voltrek is, het behels dat hy aan `n kruis vasgebind word, onthoof word, sy regterhand afgekap word, die res van sy liggaam gevierdeel word en sy ingewande onder die skavot, waar die vonnis voltrek is, begrawe word. Sy liggaamsdele is daarna op pale in die openbaar vertoon – sy kop en regterhand by die ingang van die Roodezandkloof, tussen Paarl en Tulbagh, en sy vier liggaamsdele langs die besigste paaie in die Kaap.

Elisabeth sterf op 67-jarige ouderdom in ongeveer 1743. In haar testament van 1724 het sy bepaal dat haar kinders gelykop moet erf en alhoewel dit `n algemene bepaling was dat `n plaas aan `n spesifieke persoon bemaak word teen `n vasgestelde bedrag, doen sy dit nie. Sy spreek slegs haar begeerte uit dat Orléans na haar afsterwe ‘soude in volle bezit gegeeven werden aan haar oudste zoon Josua Cellier’. Skynbaar het Josué nie veel erg aan boerdery gehad nie aangesien hy na sy ma se afsterwe by sy suster Elisabeth in die Wellington omgewing gaan woon het. Jan boer in 1743 reeds op sy eie plaas Druiwevallei. Abraham neem van die vee oor, word die eerste Cellier wat oor die berge trek en vestig hom in die huidige Rawsonville omgewing waar hy homself hoofsaaklik op veevoerdery toespits. Pieter neem die oorblywende vee, slawe en die plaas oor en was, sover vasgestel kon word, die laaste Cellier-eienaar van Orléans.
Vansverandering van Cellier na Celliers, Cillié en Cilliers

Die verandering van Josué Cellier se nageslag se van van Cellier na Celliers, Cillié en Cilliers kon nie aan ‘n spesifieke tyd of geslag gekoppel word nie. Selfs op die dokumente wat vir Josué nagegaan is, word sy van benewens Cellier ook as Celliers, Sellier, Selliers, Siljee, Silliers, Sollier en Zilie gespel.

Vir die volgende drie geslagte (b, c en d-geslagte) is die spelling van Josué se nasate se van legio, onder andere Celie, Celje, Cellie, Cellier, Celliers, Cielje, Cilie, Cilje, Cilli, Cillie, Cillier, Cilliers, Cillje, De Cilliers, De Silliers, Seliee, Seliers, Selje, Sellie, Sellier, Sielje, Silie, Silje, Siljee en Silliers.

Dit is eers vanaf die vierde geslag (e-geslag) dat die spellings Celliers, Cillié en Cilliers meerendeels gebruik is, maar van die voorgemelde variasies het steeds voorgekom. Daar kon ook nie altyd bepaal word watter spelling ‘n spesifieke persoon gebruik het nie omdat spelling van dokument tot dokument kon verskil en dit het tot in die 1900’s nog voorgekom. Verder was ‘n bepaalde spelling ook nie altyd deur al die lede van ‘n gesin en hul nageslag gebruik nie.

Cilliers is die spelling wat die meeste teëgekom is.

Die eerste afstammeling van Jan (b2) wat die Celliers spelling algemeen gebruik het, was Jacob Daniel (b2c1d1e1f4) en daarna sy nageslag, maar Jacob Daniel se twee broers en hul nageslag het weer hul van as Cilliers gespel. Onder die nageslagte wat die Kaap Kolonie verlaat het, wil dit voorkom asof die Celliers spelling algemeen in die Lichtenburg- en Vryburg-omgewing gebruik is terwyl die Cilliers spelling weer in die Marico-omgewing asook in die Oranje Vrystaat en Natal gebruik is. By Abraham (b7) se afstammelinge wat in die Kaap Kolonie gebly het, is die Celliers spelling net by enkele lede van ‘n gesin teëgekom, maar hierdie spelling is dikwels nie behou nie.

Alhoewel die Cillié spelling wel op dokumente van Abraham (b7) se afstammelinge voorkom is, is die spelling nie behou nie. Hierdie spelling is slegs deur sommige van Jan (b2) se afstammelinge behou. Die eerste afstammeling van Jan (b2) waar hierdie spelling algemeen deur ‘n gesin gebruik is, is by sommige van die kinders van Petrus (b2c1d2), maar selfs hier wissel die spelling op dokumente vir dieselfde persoon nog tussen Celliers, Cillié, Cilliers asook sommige van die voorgemelde variasies. Sover vasgestel kon word, is sy seun Petrus Johannes (b2c1d2e2) se nageslag die enigste wat die Cillié spelling behou het terwyl sy seun Johannes Arnoldus (b2c1d2e6) se nageslag hul van as Celliers, Cillié en Cilliers spel.

Bronne:
Genealogiese Publikasies
De Villiers, C C en Pama, C Geslagsregisters van Ou Kaapse Families, A A Balkema, Kaapstad en Rotterdam, 1981.
Heese, J A en Lombard, R T J/GISA, Suid-Afrikaanse Geslagsregisters – Deel 1-4, A-K.
Ander Publikasies
Böeseken, A J, et al, Drie Eeue Die Verhaal van ons Vaderland, Nasionale Boekhandel, Kaapstad, 1952.
Botha, Colin Graham The French Regugees at the Cape, Struik, Cape Town, 1970.
Burman, Jose So High the Road, Human & Rousseau, Cape Town, 1963.
Coertzen, Pieter Die Hugenote in Suid-Afrika 1688-1988, Tafelberg, Kaapstad, 1988.
De Jongh, P S Sarel Cilliers, Perskor, Johannesburg, 1987.
De Klerk, W A Klein Reis deur Drakenstein, Perskor, Johannesburg, 1974.
Franken, J L M Argiefjaarboek vir Suid-Afrikaanse Geskiedenis – Die Hugenote aan die Kaap, Pretoria, 1978.
Hugenote Vereniging van Suid-Afrika, Franschhoek – Verskeie Bulletins.
Le Roux, J G Bewaarders van ons Erfenis, GISA, Stellenbosch.
Le Roux, J G Hugenotebloed in ons Are, RGN, Pretoria, 1988.
Le Roux, J G Ons Drakensteinse Erfgrond, Drakenstein Heemkring, Paarl.
Muller, C J F (Ed), Five Hundred Years, A History of South Africa, Academica, Cape Town and Pretoria, 1973.
Penn, Nigel Rogues, Rebels and Runaways, David Philip Publishers, Cape Town, 1999.
Schoeman, Karel Armosyn van die Kaap, Human en Rousseau, Kaapstad, 1999.
Trewhella, Cameron (Red), Nuwe Geskiedenis van Suid-Afrika, Human & Rousseau, Kaapstad, 1986.
Kaapse Argiefbewaarplek, Kaapstad
Boedelinventaris MOOC 8/4 no 33
Handtekeninge by W A van der Stel se getuigskrif C2416-p20
Huwelikshofnotules
Joernaal van Gideon le Grande MOOC 14/1 Vol 1, no 19
Kontrak CJ 2883-no81
Likwidasie- en Distribusierekenings
Opgaafrolle
Resolusies van die Politieke Raad – Dele 1 tot 10
Sterftekennisse
Testamente CJ 2600 no 28 en CJ 2602 no 33
Vendusierolle
VOC Dagregisters 1699
Weilisensies
N G Kerk Argief, Kaapstad
Doderegisters
Doopregisters
Huweliksregisters
Lidmaatregisters

Navorsing deur:
Mariana Olivier omariana@lantic.net

Bron: Stamouers. com

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