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bloedrivier

Image: geni.com
The Laager…of the Trekkers…at the Ncome river. Read on the Wiki-link more about this battle. All links in this post will open in a new window.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Blood_River

Today, 16th December, is an important day in the history of South Africa. In 1838 a battle was fought on the banks of the River Ncome. The battle was won by a small number of Trekkers vs thousands of Zulus. Previously, this day was called the Day of the Covenant, now it’s called Reconciliation Day. This day will always remind us of our forefathers that sought a better life.  History is one thing you can’t change. Governments can change, people can change, but not history.

Day of the Vow.
Read on this
WIKI-link more about the 16th December, the Day of the Vow. On this next link you can read about the Boer War on my blog.

https://chessaleeinlondon.wordpress.com/2007/09/23/boer-war-art-poetry-and-history/

On 16 December 1838 where a meagre force of 470 Voortrekkers defeated an army of ten thousand Zulus under the command of Dingane. Only three Voortrekkers were wounded, and some 3,000 Zulu warriors were killed.
After suffering heavy losses at the hands of the warriors of Zulu King Dingane (c. 1795-1840), a Voortrekker commando advanced against the former in December 1838. As it was evident that they would be faced by superior enemy numbers, the Voortrekkers were induced by A.W.J. Pretorius (1798-1853) and S.A. Cilliers (1801-1871), to enter into a covenant with God. Its exact words were not recorded, but eyewitnesses’ later versions concurred that God had been requested to assist them in vanquishing the Zulu Army. Should they be victorious, the Voortrekkers undertook that they and their descendants would annually dedicate the day of the conquest to the glory of God alone. The Battle of Blood River took place on 16 December 1838, marking the Voortrekkers’ desired victory. On the same day, the Covenant was fulfilled for the first time on the very battlefield. Thus the oldest Afrikaner national celebration, later known as Dingaan’s Day or Day of the Covenant, came about.
Initially the Covenant was commemorated in a small way by families and religious associates. In 1864 the General Synod of the Afrikaners’ Natal Churches agreed that 16 December would henceforth be celebrated as ecclesiastical day of thanksgiving by all its congregations. This was the result of the efforts of two Dutch clergymen and supporters of Revival Theology, namely Revs. D.P.M. Huet (1827-1895) and F.L. Cachet (1835-1899). In 1865 the Executive Counsel of the South African Republic declared 16 December to be a public holiday in this Boer Republic. During the Anglo Transvaal (1880-1881) and Anglo Boer Wars (1899-1902), the commemoration of the Covenant inspired Afrikaners. The celebrations acquired a deeply nationalistic significance. A growing number of Covenant ceremonies were annually being organised throughout the Boer Republics and northern Natal. In 1894 the Government of the Free State also declared 16 December to be a public holiday. English-speaking compatriots and members of other races in general attached little importance to the Covenant, normally utilising 16 December for recreational purposes only. In 1910 an act was passed by Parliament according to which 16 December would be celebrated as a national holiday (Dingaan’s Day) throughout the Union of South Africa, as of 1911.

The celebration of the Covenant of 1838 has had an inestimable influence on Afrikaner and even South African cultural history. It played an important religious, national, social and educational role in everyday life, stimulating and shaping the Afrikaner’s creativity, historical consciousness, ethics and intercultural relations. In 1952 the name of the day was changed from Dingaan’s Day to Day of the Covenant. After 1994, in post-apartheid South Africa, it has still remained a public holiday, even though it is now known as Day of Reconciliation. The fact that it has been retained as a holiday is regarded as a significant gesture of goodwill towards Afrikaners.

On this next link you can read a Master’s Dissertation..in Afrikaans about the Vow and the meaning.
http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07242003-161607/


Image: Wikimedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_the_Vow

On this image the Vow can be read…in Dutch.

English: Here we stand before the holy God of heaven and earth, to make a vow to Him that, if He will protect us and give our enemy into our hand, we shall keep this day and date every year as a day of thanksgiving like a sabbath, and that we shall erect a house to His honour wherever it should please Him, and that we also will tell our children that they should share in that with us in memory for future generations. For the honour of His name will be glorified by giving Him the fame and honour for the victory.

Blood River - painting

Blood River – painting

 Image: southafrica-travel.net
On
this link you can read more about King Dingane, the Zulu king and Piet Retief,  battles that were fought, also about the Battle of Weenen in South Africa’s history.

Voortrekker Monument Pretoria

Blood River: Voortrekker Monument Pretoria

Image:http://picasaweb.google.com/Korostrand/VoortrekkerMonument

Blood River painting

Blood River painting

Image: debruinfamily.com/DieGrootTrek/

‘Outa Flink’

Oktober 2010:  Hierdie foto van ‘Outa Flink’ is deur die Voortrekker/Msunduzi Museum, Pietermaritzburg aan my verskaf en ek wil graag vir Elrica Olivier daar bedank! Volgens inligting is ‘Outa Flink’ tydens die Slag van Bloedrivier gevange geneem en het hy vir Schalk Burger gewerk en is hy op die plaas Goedgedacht begrawe! [Goedgedacht is waar ek groot geword het!] Ons is tans besig om meer inligting oor ‘Outa Flink’ te bekom as ook die Gelofte Kerkie. 

Update oor Outa Flink

Hy het op die plaas vir Schalk Burger gewerk. Hy is dood as gevolg van ouderdom en het daar bly woon na die ABO omdat sy familie nie opgespoor kon word nie. Schalk Burger het hom oor hom ontferm en basies vir hom ‘gesorg’.

‘Bloedrivier’

In 1838 is God se hulp gevra om die boere in hul nood te steun, te behoed en te bewaar
‘n Monument sal hulle bou en die dag sal heilig bly,
Hul grootste wapen – hul geloof – met die Here aan hul sy …

Die nag was kul en donker, die impi’s staan en wag,
die lampies op die ossewaens soos Mahlozi’s in die nag
‘n Strandwolf sluip daar tussendeur, hy’s onheilspellend daar
Die mis sak toe, die vyand druis, hul wag op die bevel.

In die geslote walaer, in ‘n see van heidendom
is daar ‘n lig wat helder skyn – die lig van Christendom.
Die stemme van ‘n mannekoor weerklink deur digte mis
Psalm agt-en-dertig, stel almal weer gerus.

KOOR
Maar dieselfde God van Bloedrivier is steeds ons God vandag
Hy verstaan ons grootste vrese, Hy staan by ons deur die nag
Kom ons almal vat weer hande, erken sy grote Mag
Want dieselfde God van Bloedrivier is steeds met ons vandag

Twee skote van ‘n dubbel-loop, die stryd het pas begin
Die isilongo kondig aan Dingaan – ons sal oorwin
Maar God ons Vader is met ons, die vyand word verslaan
Die veld drink bloed, soos op Golgota – dit moet ons verstaan

KOOR
Maar dieselfde God van Bloedrivier is steeds ons God vandag
Hy verstaan ons grootste vrese, Hy staan by ons deur die nag
Kom ons almal vat weer hande, erken sy grote Mag
Want dieselfde God van Bloedrivier is steeds met ons vandag

The Battle Of Blood River
A word of thousands of Zulus on their way,
Made the boere’s wives ready to pray,
The question: to meet them or to wait?
That was Cilliers and Andries’ debate.

464 Boere waited quietly and shiver,
Next to a donga and the Ncome river.
That evening around the laager the mist lay,
But ghostly lamps kept the zulus at bay.

As dawn finally broke on a Sunday,
All of Zululand sat there that day.
10 000 Zulu warriors ready for blood,
Running to fight through the river’s mud!

Andries Pretorius was the boer leader,
The Zulus attacked without a breather.
Assagai and the long throwing spear,
Had the single shot boer Muskets in fear.

Dambuza and Ndlela’s thousands of zulu men,
Made Pretorius feel they’re in the lion’s den.
Zulus shot running through the river’s mud,
Made the river’s water turn to human blood.

The boere prayed and asked the Lord in fear,
To deliver them from the zulu spear.
Vowed to build a church and always remember
To Sabbath the date of 16 December.

Two hours later and 4 waves of spears,
Pretorius’ men let go of their fears.
Chased after the zulus as they scattered.
Truly that day the warriors got battered.

Dead bodies in the field that day was rife,
But 464 of God’s children was alive.
Although three was injured and lying in bed.
More than 3000 zulus was counted as dead.
Written by Louis van Niekerk on 05 October 2009
http://sites.google.com/site/louispvanniekerk/Home/poetry/english/the-battle-of-blood-river

Die volgende inligting kom van die Bloedrivier.org website.

Wie was daar met die slag van Bloedrivier?
Soek gerus jou famielie naam op, hul bloed vloei nog daagliks deur jou are !

Met erkenning aan Johann Janse van Rensburg en byvoegings deur Gerhard Swart. (bloedrivier.org)

Hier volg ‘n lys van 351 persone van die totale getal van 464 (verwys #) blanke krygers en die 59 kleurlinge wat aan die slag van Bloedrivier op 16 Desember 1838 deelgeneem het.

Waar moontlik word die persoon se genealogiese nommer ook verskaf. (BRON (verwys ##): Die Bloedrivierse Eeufeesgedenkboek opgestel deur A.C. du Toit en Dr. Louis Steenkamp, die lys is verder bygewerk deur die Genealogiese Genootskap van Suid-Afrika – N-Tvl Tak.)

Hoofkommandant:
1. Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus (verwys nota 1) (b3c1d5e11)

Assistent-HoofKmdt:
2. Landman Karel Pieter (b2c10)

Kommandante:
3. Jacobsz Pieter Daniel(a15b5c3d8e1)
4. de Lange Johan Hendrik (Hans Dons)(b10c2)
5. Potgieter Jacobus (Koos)
6. Erasmus Stephanus Petrus
7. Uys Jacobus Johannes(b1c5d2e4)
8. Meyer Lucas Johannes

Laerkommandante:
9. Pretorius Albertus (ook kannonnier)
10. Erasmus Lourens
11. Moolman Piet (Rooi Piet)
12. Fronemann Christoffel Cornelis (b7)

Veldkornette:
13. Steyn Johannes C
14. Viljoen Gert
15. Pretorius Hercules Albertus (Bart)(b3c1d5e14) Broer van AWJ Pretorius (kanonier)
16. van Staden Gert (verwys nota 2)
17. Lombard Hermanus Stephanus
18. Scheepers Jan
19. Fourie Hermanus
20. Cowie William (a1)
21. Labuschagne Casper
22. Joubert Jan (ook kanonnier)

Godsdiensleiers:
23. Cilliers Sarel Arnoldus(b2c1d7e4)
24. du Plessis Johannes (Jan) (ook ‘n Veldkornet)
25. Joubert Pieter Jacobus (b10c6d9 moontlik)

Kanonniers:
26. Rudolph Petrus Johannes (b1c1d2)
27. Pretorius Gerhardus

Manskappe:
28. Aucamp Piet

29. Badenhorst Hendrik
30. Badenhorst P
31. Bantjes Jan Gerritze (b1c3d3)
32. Bantjies I
33. Beneke Johannes
34. Bester Barend Jacobus (b4c3d4e3) (sneuwel by slag van Umfolozi)
35. Bester Lourens ERasmus (b4c3d4e2)
36. Bester Paul Ma(i)chiel (b4c3d4e1)
37. Bezuidenhout Daniel Pieter
38. Biddulph Thomas Jervis (a1)
39. Bierman Isak
40. Biggar Alexander Harvey (a1) (sneuwel by slag van Umfolozi)
41. Bodes Barend Hendrik
42. Bornman Johannes Jurgens (b1c3)
43. Boshoff Jakobus (Jan)
44. Botha Ernst Adriaan Lodewyk (b1c7d1e15)
45. Botha Hendrik
46. Botha J C
47. Botha Jan
48. Botha L
49. Botha P J
50. Botha P R
51. Botha T F
52. Botha Theunis
53. Bothma Carel A
54. Bothma Daniel
55. Breytenbach Chris
56. Breytenbach Izaak Johannes (b4c1d4)
57. Breytenbach Jacob Coenraad
58. Breytenbach Johan Hendrik
59. Breytenbach Johannes Jacobus
60. Bronkhorst Johannes Jacobus (b6c6)
61. Bronkhorst Johannes Jacobus (b6c6d4)
62. Bronkhorst Samuel Johannes (b6c6d9)
63. Bruwer Eduard Christiaan Daniel (b7c4d12)
64. Bruwer Hans
65. Bruyn Piet
66. Buitendagh Carel Hendrik
67. Burger Jacobus Johannes
68. Burger Schalk Willem
69. Buys Piet

70. Claassens Christiaan Cornelis
71. Coetzee Cornelis (P-zn)
72. Coetzer Johannes Jacobus
73. Coetzer Philippus Jeremias
74. Coetzer Thys
75. Combrinck Gerhardus Hermanus Jacobus
76. Cronje Abraham Martinus
77. Cronje Piet

78. Davel Henning
79. Davel Jan
80. Dannhauser Thomas Richard (b6)
81. de Beer Christiaan Marthinus (Snr)
82. de Beer Abraham Samuel Jacobus
83. de Beer Christiaan Marthinus (Jnr)
84. de Beer Johannes (Jan) Christiaan
85. de Beer Johannes Adam
86. de Beer Stephanus A (Snr)
87. de Beer Zacharias Jacobus
88. de Bruyn Petrus Frederik
89. de Clercq Abraham Johannes
90. de Clercq Barend Jacobus
91. de Clercq Cornelis
92. de Clercq Jacob (b6c3d5)
93 de Clercg Johannes Wilhelmus
94. de Jager Frederick Johannes
95. de Jager Izak J
96. de Jager Johannes Wilhelmus (b1c11d5e5)
97. de Jager Lodewyk
98. de Lange Adriaan (Jnr)
99. de Lange Adriaan Jacobus (Snr, Hans Dons se broer)
100. de Lange Robertus Burnet (Broer van Hans Dons)
101. de Wet Kootjie
102. de Wet Pieter
103. de Winnaar Carel Stephanus
104. Dreyer Christiaan Lourens Sr.
105. Dreyer F
106. Dreyer I
107. du Plessis Francois
108. du Plessis Johannes (Jan)
109. du Plessis Pieter
110. du Plooy Hendrik
111. du Plooy Cornelis Willem
112. du Plooy Dirk Wouter
113. du Preez Pieter Daniel Andreas Salomon
114. Deysel F

115. Engelbregt Adriaan Stephanus
116. Engelbregt E
117. Engelbregt Gerhardus Johannes
118. Engelbregt H (jong)
119. Engelbregt H H (Snr)
120. Engelbregt Johannes Hendrik
121. Enslin Johannes Jacobus
122. Erasmus Antonie Philippus
123. Erasmus Barend Christoffel
124. Erasmus Cornelis Johannes
125. Erasmus Daniel Elardus
126. Erasmus Hans
127. Erasmus Jacobus
128. Erasmus Pieter ERasmus
129. Erasmus Stephanus E
130. Esterhuizen Jan Christoffel

131. Ferreira Marthinus Stephanus
132. Fick Hendrik (JC?)
133. Fisher Jan
134. Fourie Christiaan Erns
135. Fourie Dirk S
136. Fourie Hermanus
137. Fourie Philip Jacobus (Gewond tydens slag van Bloedrivier)
138. Fourie MVA

139. Garden Kapt. (Engels)
140. Geers Carel Frederik Christoffel (of Geer)
141. Geere Johannes (Jan) Coenraad Jonas
142. Giezing Fredrich (a1)
143. Goosen Marthinus2
144. Gouws Daniel
145. Gouws Jacob I
146. Gouws Jacob Marthinus
147. Gouws Pieter Marthinus
148. Greyling Jan Cristoffel (b11c2d3)
149. Greyling Pieter Jacobus (b11c2d2)
150. Grobbelaar Nicolaas (b9c11)
151. Grobbelaar Pieter Schalk (b9c11d2)
152. Grobler J
153. Grove Hermanus Gerhardus (b3c9d5)

154. Hammes Pieter Johannes (b1c2)
155. Hattingh Christiaan
156. Hattingh Francois (b8c7d4e1)
157. Hattingh Johannes Dewald
158. Hattingh Johannes Hendrik (Hans) (b11c1d2e1)
159. Herbst Marthinus Johannes Hendrik
160. Heydenreich Cornelis Frederik (b6c2d2)
161. Human Petrus Gerhardus

162. Jacobs Gabriel Gerhardus Nicholaas Nic (a15b5c3d8e1f7) (Kmdt. Jacobz se seun)
163. Jacobs Pieter Daniel (a15b5c3d8e1f2)
164. Jacobsz Jan (Kmdt. Jacobz se seun)
165. Janse van Rensburg Lukas Marthinus
166. Janse van Rensburg Nicolaas Marthinus (C-zn)
167. Janse van Rensburg Willem Cornelis
168. Janse van Vuren Luckas (of Lucas) Gerhardus
169. Janszen Willem
170. Jordaan Willem
171. Joubert Abraham Benjamin
172. Joubert Gideon
173. Joubert Jan (Jacs-zn)
174. Joubert Jan (jnr.)
175. Joyce Robert (a3)

176. Kemp Gerhardus Philippus
177. Kemp Jacobus Frederik
178. Kemp Petrus Johannes
179. Kilian Justus Daniel (Nageslag boer steeds op Vryheid)
180. Klaassen P
181. Klopper Hendrik Balthazar
182. Klopper Jacobus Marthinus
183. Klopper Johan Christiaan
184. Koekemoer C
185. Koekemoer Marthinus
186. Kritzinger Lewis
187. Kritziinger Matthys S B
188. Kruger Jan
189. Kruger Pieter Ernst
190. Kruger Tobias Johannes

191. Laas Cornelius Johannes
192. Laas C Mathys
193. Laas JAM
194. Labuschagne J P
195. Labuschagne Jan Harm (Jan Groen)
196. Labuschagne Willem Adriaan
197. Landman Jan A Karel Pieter (Snr)
198. Landman Jan (Doringberg)
199. le Roux D
200. le Roux Nicolaas (verwys nota 2)
201. Leech
202. Liebenberg Christiaan Jacobus (b2bc2d2e2)
203. Liebenberg Christiaan Jacobus (b2c2d6)
204. Lindeque Gerrit Johannes (Snr)
205. Lindeque Petrus
206. Lombard Hans
207. Lombard Hermanus Antonie
208. Lombard S
209. Lotter Johannes (Lotter Jacob?)
210. Ludick M J

211. Malan Daniel Jacob Johannes
212. Malan David Daniel
213. Malan Jacob Jacobus
214. Malan Stephanus Marcus F
215. Marais Coenraad
216. Marais Johannes L
217. Marais Stephanus Abraham
218. Marais F
219. Marcus F
220. Mare Wynand Wilhelmus (b9c7d7)
221. Maritz Pieter
222. Maritz Salomon Gerhardus (b1c8d1e2)
223. Maritz Salomon Stephanus (b1c8d2e1)
224. Martens Hendrik Jacobus (a5b1c7)
225. Martens Jan Thomas (snr) (a5b1c6)
226. Martens Jan Thomas (jnr)
227. Marx Frans Engelbertus (b3c6d4)
228. Meintjes Albertus Jacobus
229. Meinties Jacobus William
230. Meintjes Schalk Willem
231. Mey Christiaan Lodewyk
232. Meyer Adriaan Willem Petrus
233. Meyer Jacob
234. Meyer Jan
235. Meyer Lukas (L-zn)
236. Meyer Theodorus
237. Mienie Frederik Christiaan
238. Mienie Johannes
240. Moolman I
241. Moolman Adriaan Izak
242. Moolman Jacobus Philippus
243. Muller Johannes Christiaan (moontlik a1b5c7d4)
244. Muller Jan (moontlik a11b2)

245. Naude Jacob
246. Naude Philip Jacobus
247. Naude Francois Paulus
248. Neethling Hendrik Ludolf
249. Neethling Schalk Willem
250. Neethling Willem Hendrik
251. Nel Louis Jacobus
252. Nell Theunis Jacobus
253. Nell Willem Gabriel
254. Nortje Joachim

Oberholzer Jan Albert
Olivier (Lang) Gert
Olivier Ockert
Oosthuizen A
Oosthuizen Jan (J-zn) (verwys nota 2)
Oosthuizen J J (Snr)
Oosthuizen Marthinus Jacobus (b1c4d7e2)
Opperman C
Opperman D
Parker Edward
Pieters Coenraad
Pieterse Frederik
Pieterse H J
Pieterse Nicolaas
Potgieter Cornelis
Potgieter Evert F
Potgieter Hendrik
Potgieter Jurgen
Potgieter Matthys
Potgieter Petrus Hendrik Theunis
Potgieter Theodorus
Pretorius A P
Pretorius Barend
Pretorius Dewald Johannes (b3c1d2e4f4)
Pretorius Gideon
Pretorius Henning Petrus Nicolaas (b3c1d5e12)
Pretorius Marthinus Wessel (b3c1d5e11f1)
Pretorius Nicolaas
Pretorius Petrus Gerhardus (b3c9d7)
Pretorius Petrus Gerhardus (b3c9d7e2)
Pretorius Samuel
Pretorius Willem H
Pretorius Willem Jacobus
Prinsloo Jochemus Johannes Petr (b2c3d6e1f3)
Prinsloo N J
Prinsloo Willem P
Raads D
Raath Philip
Raath Pieter
Raath Roelof
Raatz Gerrit1
Ranger Simon
Reineke Adam
Retief Jacobus
Robbertse I
Robbertse Jan
Robbertse Matthys
Roets Hendrik
Rood
Roos Cornelis J
Roos Gysbert
Roscher P
Roux Dirk
Rudolph Jacobus Andreas (b1c3)
Rudolph Johann(es)Bernard (b1c1)
Rudolph Gerhardus Jacobus (b1c2)
Scheepers Coenraad F(swaer v. Erasmus Smit)
Scheepers Gert
Scheepers H
Scheepers J A
Scheepers Jacobus Johannes
Scheepers Stephanus Johannes
Scheepers M (G-zn)
Scheepers Marthinus
Schoeman Gert

Schoeman Johannes
Schutte Jan Harm Thomas
Slabbert G
Smit Andries Adriaan
Smit Chr. (C-zn)
Smith F
Snyman Coenraad F W (b7c4d9e7)
Snyman J H
Steenkamp Hermanus
Steenkamp Jan Harm (b7c2d3e2)
Steenkamp Piet L
Steenkamp Thomas Ignatius
Steyn Hermanus
Steyn Johannes Christoffel
Steyn Pieter
Strydom D J
Strydom Hendrik
Strydom J
Strydom Pieter Gerhardus
Swanepoel Willem
Swart Marius
Swart Pieter Johannes
Uys Dirk Cornelis (b1c5d2e12)
Uys Jacobus Johannes (b1c5d2e4f3)
Uys Jan C
Uys Petrus Lafras (Piet Hlobane)(b1c5d2e3f4)
van den Berg Hendrik (b1c10d6)
van den Berg Hendrik Stephanus (b1c10d6e3)
van der Berg Isak
van der Merwe Andries
van der Merwe C
van der Merwe Christiaan Pieter (verwys nota 3)
van der Merwe Frederik J
van der Merwe Jan
van der Merwe Josias
van der Merwe L P
van der Merwe Lukas J
van der Merwe M
van der Merwe Willem
van der Schyff D
van der Schyff J D
van Deventer Jan (a1b5c10d6)
van Dyk Joseph
van Dyk Sybrand
van Gass Ferdinand Paul George (b1)
van Gass J F
van Jaarsveld A
van Loggerenberg Hendrik
van Niekerk Izak Andries (b3c7d4e4)
van Niekerk J A P
van Niekerk Pieter Johannes
van Rooyen Cornelis J
van Rooyen Dirk
van Rooyen G T
van Rooyen Gert F
van Rooyen Gert Reinier
van Rooyen I
van Rooyen Lukas
van Rooyen Stephanus
van Schalkwyk Christiaan
van Schalkwyk Gert
van Staden Cornelis
van Staden V C
van Straten Jacob
van Venen D
van Vuuren P
van Zyl Jacobus
Venter Albert
Venter C I
Venter P A
Venter Willem Daniel
Vermaak Cornelis
Vermaak J
Viljoen Christoffel
Viljoen Gideon
Viljoen Johan H
Viljoen M
Viljoen Sarel
Visagie Jan
Visser

Notas:
1. Gewond gedurende die slag van Bloedrivier.
2. Dood gedurende die opvolg operasie om Dingaan te probeer vang op 27 Desember 1838.
3. Slegs lig gewond gedurende die slag van Bloedrivier.

Ander brokkies inligting:
Johann Bernhard Rudolph was van die begin van die trek betrokke met die administrasie en is in 1839 as die eerste Weesheer aangewys en in 1842 as Landros van Pietermaritzburg.
Lucas Johannes Meyer aangestel as die eerste Ontvanger van Inkomste.
William Cowie is die persoon na wie Cowie’s Hill naby Pinetown vernoem is.
Thomas Jervis Biddulph was ‘n 1820 Settelaar.
Coenraad Snyman was ‘n fotograaf. Hy was ook baie groot, so groot dat hy nie perd kon ry nie. ‘n Broek van hom is in bewaring by die Gelofte Kerk Museum in PMB.
Hendrik Jacobus Martens is aangestel as die eerste bode van die hof.

# Daar is ook bronne wat verwys na 407 blankes. J.G. Bantjes verwys egter na sowat 464 blanke manskappe uitsluitend die kommandante. Daar is ook bronne wat verwys na sowat 200 swartes wat saam met A.Biggar, E.Parker en R.Joyce aan die geveg kom deelneem het.
## Ander bronne: P.S. de Jongh, Sarel Cilliers; E Smit, Dagboek van Erasmus Smit; J.A. Heese & R.T.J.Lombard, SA Gegeslagsregisters; De Villiers & Pama, Geslagsregisters van ou Kaapse Families; B. Cilliers, Genealogieë van die Afrikaner Families in Natal; SABW 1-5; A. Walker, The Great Trek.

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Tomorrow is….again…that time of year some of us don’t like at all….because all dogs want to hide in places you don’t have in your home, some dogs get lost due to some fireworks – which sound more like bombs and dog owners want to go mad at those setting of the fireworks (bombs) unexpectedly. Sometimes it goes non-stop during the night! We had some fireworks about 5 houses away from us Saturday night…maybe it was still some people celebrating Diwali…but it’s crazy! at about 1am/2am in the morning! I mean, some people are night owls, others not. It’s not to say that if you go to bed at 3am that you don’t have to respect your neighbours or people near you.

Image: supercoolpets.com

Remember, remember the Fifth of November,
The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,
I know of no reason
Why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.


The Museum of London is holding a Guy Fawkes study day on November 5, whilst over at the Museum in Docklands, Toy Theatre retells the story of Fawkes – but with a different ending. © London Museums
Please follow
THIS LINK -which will open in a new window-to find out more!

Basically, Guy Fawkes was a man who tried to blow up the King of England by setting the Houses of Parliament ablaze in 1605. He was a member of an English Roman Catholic group who opposed the Protestant rule in England. English folks make effigies or stuffed figures representing the famous conspirator and burn them.

 Image:britannica.com

On the 5th of November, the king and his leaders were about to meet. So, Guy Fawkes men placed barrels of gunpowder in one of the cellars beneath the building where the king was having his meeting. Guy Fawkes was to light the fuse that would set off the explosion. But the plot was discovered before he had a chance to do this. The king was saved, and Guy Fawkes was hanged
Ever since, Guy Fawkes Day has been a time for merrymaking. It is a holiday that both children and adults can enjoy. And the fun really begins when darkness falls, then “the “Guy” is tossed onto the bonfire, and set alight. Then the fireworks go off, and “the Guy” goes up in a flames.

As early as 1607 there are records of bonfire celebrations on the 5th of November. James I had declared the day a public holiday in his joy at the overthrow of the Gunpowder Plot.

Children would often blacken their faces with the ashes on Bonfire night, in imitation of Guy fawkes who it was believed to have done this also, to try to camouflage himself.

Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606) sometimes known as Guido Fawkes, was a member of a group of English Roman Catholic revolutionaries who planned to carry out the Gunpowder Plot.

Although Robert Catesby was the lead figure in thinking up the actual plot, Fawkes was put in charge of executing the plan for his military and explosives experience. The plot was foiled shortly before its intended completion, as Fawkes was captured while guarding the gunpowder. Suspicion was aroused by his wearing of a coat, boots and spurs, as if he intended to leave very quickly.

Fawkes has left a lasting mark on history and popular culture. Held in the United Kingdom (and some parts of the Commonwealth) on November 5 is Bonfire Night, centred on the plot and Fawkes. He has been mentioned in popular film, literature and music by people such as Charles Dickens and John Lennon. There are geographical locations named after Fawkes, such as Isla Guy Fawkes in the Galápagos Islands and Guy Fawkes River in Australia.

The plot itself may have been occasioned by the realisation by Protestant authorities and Catholic recusants that the Kingdom of Spain was in far too much debt and fighting too many wars to assist Catholics in Britain. Any possibility of toleration by Great Britain was removed at the Hampton Court conference in 1604 when King James I attacked both extreme Puritans and Catholics. The plotters realised that no outside help would be forthcoming unless they took action themselves. Fawkes and the other conspirators rented a cellar beneath the House of Lords having first tried to dig a tunnel under the building. This would have proved difficult, because they would have had to dispose of the dirt and debris. (No evidence of this tunnel has ever been found). By March 1605, they had hidden 1800 pounds (36 barrels, or 800 kg) of gunpowder in the cellar. The plotters also intended to abduct Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth of Bohemia, the “Winter Queen”). A few of the conspirators were concerned, however, about fellow Catholics who would have been present at Parliament during the opening. One of the conspirators wrote a warning letter to Lord Monteagle, who received it on 26 October. The conspirators became aware of the letter the following day, but they resolved to continue the plot after Fawkes had confirmed that nothing had been touched in the cellar.

Lord Monteagle had been made suspicious, however; the letter was sent to the Secretary of State, who initiated a search of the vaults beneath the House of Lords in the early morning of 5 November. However, nothing was moved, in order not to alert the conspirators that the plot had been uncovered. Fawkes, who was resolved to blow himself up along with Parliament if need be, was seized as he attempted to ignite the powder charge. Peter Heywood, a resident of Heywood, Lancashire, snatched the torch from his hand at the last instant. Fawkes was arrested and taken before the privy council where he remained defiant. When asked by one of the Scottish lords what he had intended to do with so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered him, “To blow you Scotch beggars back to your own native mountains!”

When they asked for his name Fawkes replied “John Johnson”. He was tortured over the next few days. King James directed that the torture be light at first, but more severe if necessary. Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower of London at this time, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes’s confession. For three or four days Fawkes said nothing, nor divulged the names of his co-conspirators. Only when he found out that they had proclaimed themselves by appearing in arms did he succumb. The torture only revealed the names of those conspirators who were already dead or whose names were known to the authorities. Some had fled to Dunchurch, Warwickshire, where they were killed or captured. On 31 January, Fawkes and a number of others implicated in the conspiracy were tried in Westminster Hall. After being found guilty, they were taken to Old Palace Yard in Westminster and St Paul’s Yard, where they were hanged, drawn and quartered.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Fawkes. 
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Image: britian4kiwikids.org.nz

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I’m back! With Jane! as I promised in about 4 posts ago. If you’ve read the post saying…

“Let’s take the road”,
you would have read about my sudden idea – or my “on the spur of the moment”-idea to “take the road”. We drove south, to the direction to Southampton and  went on the small countryside roads. On the roadmap we saw that we were near Jane Austen’s house and I was really excited and suggested that we go there. By looking at the images at the bottom of this post, you will agree with me that the garden is beautiful! I wish my garden was as big as this one! It was interesting to visit the house, but there were many other people too and some rooms are really small and you sometimes couldn’t look at everything in detail. We weren’t allowed to take pictures indoors. There are security cameras in all the rooms, but I’ve found a website where you can view the rooms in the house too. At the bottom of my post you can follow the museum-house-link to view more of the rooms. I’ve added the basin, Jane’s room and her piano from the museum-house-site here. Information in this post was found on the sites at the bottom of this post. Do enjoy!

GOOD MANNERS!..take note!

If you’re looking for “free” images/photos and you want to use some of these in the post, which I took myself, that’s fine, but may I kindly ask you to leave me a message by asking permission when you do need to use some of the pictures.

Jane Austen, one of England’s foremost novelists, was never publicly acknowledged as a writer during her lifetime. She was born on December 16, 1775, at Steventon Rectory in Hampshire, the seventh child of a country clergyman and his wife, George and Cassandra Austen. She was primarily educated at home, benefiting from her father’s extensive library and the schoolroom atmosphere created by Mr. Austen’s live-in pupils. Her closest friend was her only sister, Cassandra, almost three years her senior.

Though Austen lived a quiet life, she had unusual access to the greater world, primarily through her brothers. Francis (Frank) and Charles, officers in the Royal Navy, served on ships around the world and saw action in the Napoleonic Wars. Henry, who eventually became a clergyman like his father and his brother James, was an officer in the militia and later a banker. Austen visited Henry in London, where she attended the theater, art exhibitions, and social events and also corrected proofs of her novels. Her brother Edward was adopted by wealthy cousins, the Knights, becoming their heir and later taking their name. On extended visits to Godmersham, Edward’s estate in Kent, Austen and her sister took part in the privileged life of the landed gentry, which is reflected in all her fiction.

As a child Austen began writing comic stories, now referred to as the Juvenilia. Her first mature work, composed when she was about 19, was a novella, Lady Susan, written in epistolary form (as a series of letters). This early fiction was preserved by her family but was not published until long after her death.
In her early twenties Austen wrote the novels that later became Sense and Sensibility (first called “Elinor and Marianne”) and Pride and Prejudice (originally “First Impressions”). Her father sent a letter offering the manuscript of “First Impressions” to a publisher soon after it was finished in 1797, but his offer was rejected by return post. Austen continued writing, revising “Elinor and Marianne” and completing a novel called “Susan” (later to become Northanger Abbey). In 1803 Austen sold “Susan” for £10 to a publisher, who promised early publication, but the manuscript languished in his archives until it was repurchased a year before Austen’s death for the price the publisher had paid her.

When Austen was 25 years old, her father retired, and she and Cassandra moved with their parents to Bath, residing first at 4 Sydney Place. During the five years she lived in Bath (1801-1806), Austen began one novel, The Watsons, which she never completed. After Mr. Austen’s death, Austen’s brothers contributed funds to assist their sisters and widowed mother. Mrs. Austen and her daughters set up housekeeping with their close friend Martha Lloyd. Together they moved to Southampton in 1806 and economized by sharing a house with Frank and his family.

In 1809 Edward provided the women a comfortable cottage in the village of Chawton, near his Hampshire manor house. This was the beginning of Austen’s most productive period. In 1811, at the age of 35, Austen published Sense and Sensibility, which identified the author as “a Lady.” Pride and Prejudice followed in 1813, Mansfield Park in 1814, and Emma in 1815. The title page of each book referred to one or two of Austen’s earlier novels—capitalizing on her growing reputation—but did not provide her name.


Chawton cottage…Jane’s house
Austen began writing the novel that would be called Persuasion in 1815 and finished it the following year, by which time, however, her health was beginning to fail. The probable cause of her illness was Addison’s Disease. In 1816 Henry Austen repurchased the rights to “Susan,” which Austen revised and renamed “Catherine.”

During a brief period of strength early in 1817, Austen began the fragment later called Sanditon, but by March she was too ill to work. She and Cassandra moved to 8 College Street in Winchester to be near her doctor. Austen died in the early hours of July 18, 1817, and a few days later was buried in Winchester Cathedral. She was 41 years old. Interestingly, Austen’s gravestone, which is visited by hundreds of admirers each year, does not even mention that she was an author.

Persuasion and Northanger Abbey were published together in December 1817 with a “Biographical Notice” written by Henry, in which Jane Austen was, for the first time in one of her novels, identified as the author of Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma. Austen’s novels have never been out of print and are often included on lists of readers’ favorites. Her surviving letters are also a source of entertainment and biographical information (Jane Austen’s Letters, edited by Deirdre Le Faye, Oxford University Press, 1995).


4 Sydney Place, Bath…where she lived too.

A Selection of Biographies
J. E. Austen-Leigh, A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections, edited by Kathryn Sutherland (Oxford University Press, 2002) (also contains biographical memoirs by Austen’s brother Henry and her nieces Anna Lefroy and Caroline Austen).

Jan Fergus, Jane Austen: A Literary Life (Macmillan Press, 1991).

Park Honan, Jane Austen: Her Life (St. Martin’s Press, 1987).

Elizabeth Jenkins, Jane Austen: A Biography (1938 and later reprints).

Deirdre Le Faye, Jane Austen: A Family Record (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Claire Tomalin, Jane Austen: A Life (Alfred A. Knopf, 1997).

Cassandra Elizabeth (1773-1845) was Jane Austen’s only sister, and her closest confidante. Over a hundred letters from Jane Austen to Cassandra have survived, giving us our most intimate look at some of the details of Jane Austen’s life. Cassandra’s fiancé Thomas Fowle died of yellow fever in the Caribbean in 1797; he had gone there as a military chaplain. Possibly Cassandra’s experience is reflected in Mrs. Musgrove and Mrs. Croft’s abomination of “long engagements” and “uncertain engagements” in Jane Austen’s Persuasion (he and Cassandra had continued engaged since about 1794, due to lack of money; see “Money and Marriage”). After this, Cassandra never married. (See Cassandra’s poem on love.) Cassandra (like Jane) frequently visited her brothers and their families, and other relatives and friends (it was the separations between herself and Jane, resulting from visits on which they did not both go, that necessitated the letters between them).

 This poem was written by her sister, Cassandra, to Jane

2. MISS AUSTEN (CASSANDRA).
Love, they say, is like a rose;
I’m sure ’tis like the wind that blows,
For not a human creature knows
How it comes or where it goes.
It is the cause of many woes:
It swells the eyes and reds the nose,
And very often changes those
Who once were friends to bitter foes.
But let us now the scene transpose
And think no more of tears and throes.
Why may we not as well suppose
A smiling face the urchin shows?
And when with joy the bosom glows,
And when the heart has full repose,
‘Tis mutual love the gift bestows.

 Jane Austen enjoyed social events, and her early letters tell of dances and parties she attended in Hampshire, and also of visits to London, Bath, Southampton etc., where she attended plays and such. There is a famous statement by one Mrs. Mitford that Jane was the “the prettiest, silliest, most affected, husband-hunting butterfly she ever remembers” (however, Mrs. Mitford seems to have had a personal jealousy against Jane Austen, and it is hard to reconcile this description with the Jane Austen who wrote The Three Sisters before she was eighteen).

In January 1805 her father died. As would have been the case for the Bennets in Pride and Prejudice if Mr. Bennet had died, the income due to the remaining family (Mrs. Austen and her two daughters, the only children still at home) was considerably reduced — since most of Mr. Austen’s income had come from clerical “livings” which lapsed with his death. So they were largely dependent on support from the Austen brothers (and a relatively small amount of money left to Cassandra by her fiancé), summing to a total of about £450 yearly. Later in 1805, Martha Lloyd (sister of James Austen’s wife) came to live with Mrs. Austen, Cassandra, and Jane, after her own mother had died.

QUOTES of Jane
I do not want people to be agreeable, as it saves me the trouble of liking them.
—-
To sit in the shade on a fine day, and look upon verdure is the most perfect refreshment.

Where so many hours have been spent in convincing myself that I am right, is there not some reason to fear I may be wrong?
—-
One half of the world cannot understand the pleasures of the other.
Jane Austen, Emma
Silly things do cease to be silly if they are done by sensible people in an impudent way.
Jane Austen, Emma
A large income is the best recipe for happiness I ever heard of.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Everybody likes to go their own way–to choose their own time and manner of devotion.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

I cannot think well of a man who sports with any woman’s feelings; and there may often be a great deal more suffered than a stander-by can judge of.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

I pay very little regard…to what any young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they have not yet seen the right person.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

If any one faculty of our nature may be called more wonderful than the rest, I do think it is memory. There seems something more speakingly incomprehensible in the powers, the failures, the inequalities of memory, than in any other of our intelligences. The memory is sometimes so retentive, so serviceable, so obedient; at others, so bewildered and so weak; and at others again, so tyrannic, so beyond control! We are, to be sure, a miracle every way; but our powers of recollecting and of forgetting do seem peculiarly past finding out.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

It will, I believe, be everywhere found, that as the clergy are, or are not what they ought to be, so are the rest of the nation.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Nothing amuses me more than the easy manner with which everybody settles the abundance of those who have a great deal less than themselves.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

Oh! Do not attack me with your watch. A watch is always too fast or too slow. I cannot be dictated to by a watch.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

One cannot fix one’s eyes on the commonest natural production without finding food for a rambling fancy.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

The enthusiasm of a woman’s love is even beyond the biographer’s.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

There will be little rubs and disappointments everywhere, and we are all apt to expect too much; but then, if one scheme of happiness fails, human nature turns to another; if the first calculation is wrong, we make a second better: we find comfort somewhere.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
We have all a better guide in ourselves, if we would attend to it, than any other person can be.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
Where any one body of educated men, of whatever denomination, are condemned indiscriminately, there must be a deficiency of information, or…of something else.
Jane Austen, Mansfield Park
But when a young lady is to be a heroine, the perverseness of forty surrounding families cannot prevent her. Something must and will happen to throw a hero in her way.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey

Friendship is certainly the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey

In every power, of which taste is the foundation, excellence is pretty fairly divided between the sexes.
Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey, 1818

For what do we live, but to make sport for our neighbours, and laugh at them in our turn?
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, 1811
Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance. If the dispositions of the parties are ever so well known to each other or ever so similar beforehand, it does not advance their felicity in the least. They always continue to grow sufficiently unlike afterwards to have their share of vexation; and it is better to know as little as possible of the defects of the person with whom you are to pass your life.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
How little of permanent happiness could belong to a couple who were only brought together because their passions were stronger than their virtue.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
I declare after all there is no enjoyment like reading! How much sooner one tires of anything than of a book! When I have a house of my own, I shall be miserable if I have not an excellent library.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice

I have no pretensions whatever to that kind of elegance which consists in tormenting a respectable man.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
Loss of virtue in a female is irretrievable; that one false step involves her in endless ruin; that her reputation is no less brittle than it is beautiful; and that she cannot be too much guarded in her behaviour towards the undeserving of the other sex.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
No one can be really esteemed accomplished who does not greatly surpass what is usually met with.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously…. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice
It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.
Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, first line.

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Basin

Jane’s bedroom

Her Piano..not her real piano, but they believe that her piano looked like this one.

 image 4

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How could I resist the African Marigolds!!

 
http://www.artworksgallery.co.uk/book.html

http://www.jane-austens-house-museum.org.uk/

http://www.janeaustensociety.org.uk/

http://www.peopleandprofiles.com/ProfileLinks-28/Jane%20Austen.html?profile_id=235&type=link&st=160&linkid=28

http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html#favniece

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Round 5 can be called “The (K)nights..or is it..the day of the draws”…Click on the images for a larger view… on the second image…. Radjabov’s attention was caught by…. I wonder…by what! hehehe  On this next image you can see the end position of Kamsky and Carlsen’s game… on the side bar of the blog..you will find a “live” link where you can play through the games of the day…and on THIS LINK you will find a games-link to all the games played so far in all the finished rounds.

On these images you can see the pairings for round 6-8. Tomorrow is a free day.

baku fortress

The Fortress Wall of Old City Baku

By Fuad Akhundov
The fortress wall of the old city of Baku is a source of pride to Bakuites. Not every city with a rampart constructed at the time of the Crusaders is so well preserved. Nor do many extend for a distance of 500 meters, as Baku’s rampart does. The rampart also enabled the preservation of the medieval image of the old town, with its numerous lanes, snaking streets and the flavor of an oriental city.

Initially, two ramparts encircled Baku. The internal rampart is almost completely preserved. It was constructed by King Manuchekhr II (1120-1149). The outer wall was much lower in height, and was installed by the local ruler, Zufuqar-khan in 1608-1609. The walls were surrounded by a deep moat that could be filled by underground water in times of danger.

The khanate of Baku (a kind of Muslim duchy) was annexed to the Russian Empire in 1806. The fortress walls were last used for defense in 1826. Cannons mounted on the walls repelled a last, desperate Persian attack.

At the beginning of industrial exploitation of oil in the 1870’s, Baku grew rapidly. In 1859, the population of the city barely exceeded 13,500 inhabitants, most of who lived inside the old city walls. By 1903, there were 143,000 Bakuites, and by 1913, the “black gold” had increased the population to more than 214,000.

The tiny medieval fortress was, of course, too small to hold all these people. So the outer rampart was taken down in 1884, along with the wall on side of the old city facing the sea. Stones from this wall were used to renovate the inner wall.

But Bakuites did not want to lose the old, outer wall forever. The primary entrance to the old city, Shemakha Gate had one gate in the outer wall, and one in the inner wall. So, as the outer was dissembled, stonemasons skillfully inserted a copy of the outer entrance into the inner wall, side by side with the original inside gate. A visitor with a sharp eye for color will notice that the stones of the left entrance are slightly whiter. City residents renamed the gates “Gosha-Gala Gapysy,” meaning, in Azeri, the Twin Gates. This is the only double entrance among the five gates of the fortress wall.

The most interesting detail over both entrances is the oldest coat of arms of Baku. It is composed of two lions, and the head of a bull with two discs around the bull’s head. The German traveler, Kempfer, deciphered the symbols in 1863, as follows:

Lions were often used in Oriental heraldry as symbols of strength. The bull and the cow were sacred animals to the Zoroastrians (even today, killing these animals is prohibited in India). The discs symbolized the sun and moon. So, Kempfer concluded, the lions (that is, the fortress walls) protect the bull (i.e., the city) during day (the sun) and night (the moon).

This oldest emblem of Baku probably did not meet with favor when Islam arrived in Baku, and was at some point consigned to history. Other emblems took their place until the 1880’s. Then, a new coat of arms was designed with three torch flames representing the Zoroastrian tradition. But the way the flames were carved in the limestone of the mayor’s office, they resemble moneybags. So people used to joke that the emblem had nothing to do with fire, but represented the wealth of Baku during the first oil boom.
Source:
Read HERE MORE! about Baku.

see some wonderful photos about Baku on: bakuphotos.blogspot.com
Read on THIS LINK about the world’s 25 dirtiest cities, which Baku is apparently one of them. Baku 2016 Olympic…Baku is officially bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics …read on the link more…

Pollution
The World’s Dirtiest Cities
Tiffany M. Luck 02.26.08, 3:15 PM ET

Unless you’re in the oil business, there’s little reason to brave the choking pollution of Baku, Azerbaijan. Fetid water, oil ponds and life-threatening levels of air pollution emitted from drilling and shipping land the former Soviet manufacturing center at the bottom of this year’s list as the world’s dirtiest city.

Baku is bad, but far from alone. For residents of the 25 cities on this year’s list, black plumes of smoke, acid rain and free-flowing sewage are part of everyday life. Not as immediately visible: the impact on the population’s health and life expectancy.

To see which cities in the world were dirtiest, we turned to Mercer Human Resource Consulting’s 2007 Health and Sanitation Rankings. As part of their 2007 Quality of Life Report, they ranked 215 cities worldwide based on levels of air pollution, waste management, water potability, hospital services, medical supplies and the presence of infectious disease.

All cities are positioned against New York, the base city with an index score of 100. For the Health and Sanitation Rankings, the index scores range from the worst on the list–Baku, Azerbaijan, with a score of 27.6–to the best on the list–Calgary, Canada, with a score of 131.7.

Lead-poisoned air lands Dhaka, Bangladesh, the No. 2 spot on the list. Traffic congestion in the capital continues to worsen with vehicles emitting fatal amounts of air pollutants daily, including lead. The World Bank-funded Air Quality Management Project aims to help.

“Addressing air pollution is the easiest way to be able to fix someone’s well-being because we’re always breathing, and there are all sorts of harmful particulates in the air,” says Richard Fuller, founder of the New York-based Blacksmith Institute, a nonprofit dedicated to solving the pollution problems of the developing world. “In fact, the biggest pathway for lead poisoning is particulates in the air. So in areas with a lot of air pollution, shutting down the worst forces of these types of pollution really does make a difference.”

Nos. 3 and 4 on this year’s list are the capital cities of Madagascar and Haiti, respectively. Antananarivo, Madagascar and Port au Prince, Haiti, both face the challenge of a rapidly growing urban population and the ever-growing need for efficient water and waste management.

Mexico City, Mexico, ranks No. 5 on this year’s list. Residents can thank industrial and automobile emissions for air quality so bad that city ozone levels fail to meet World Health Organization standards an estimated 300 days of the year. But things could be worse.

“Mexico City has actually seen great improvement recently in terms of air pollution,” says Dave Calkins, founder of the Sierra Nevada Air Quality Group and former chief of the Air Planning Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in San Francisco. “So much so that the government actually has to campaign to let everyone know that pollution is still a problem.”

Economies suffer, too. Health care costs and lost productivity drag on business. Companies also face added costs in the form of remuneration packages when relocating employees and their families to some of these cities, noted Slagin Parakatil, senior researcher at Mercer. Cost-benefit analysis certainly suggests making progress toward cleanup. According to a study done by WaterAid, for every $1 spent on improved sanitation, the benefit equals $9 resulting from decreased cost of health care and increased productivity.

“If you do the numbers,” says Fuller, “to clean up the worst of it doesn’t really cost that much. It’s the 90/10 rule. To do 90% of the work only costs 10% of the money. It’s the last 10% of the cleanup that costs 90% of the money. For relatively little, we can do an awful lot to save a whole lot of lives.” Source: See the link in the start of this article.
 
Baku Round 5 from the Fide website

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This is chess game 26!  In this game I played black. This was really a tough game….one of those challenging games. If you play through the game you will see why. Luckily…as always… I had a Knight-to-the-rescue. I will even sacrifice a Rook just to have my Knight! Exactly like in real life… that’s why Knights are there! hehehe… look at move 80! Fork! and from there one…it was really easy. If you play through the game, you will see why my opponent named this game after this nursery rhyme! See if you can work out why I couldn’t really move away from that advanced Pawn of my opponent…He resigned this game at the end. Enjoy playing through it by clicking on the link.

arturo1113 vs. Nikita1


Ring a-ring o’ roses,
A pocketful of posies.
a-tishoo!, a-tishoo!.
We all fall down.

This nursery rhyme is about the black death…also called “The Plague”. The symptoms of the plague included a raised red rash on the skin (Ring a ring o’ rosies) and violent sneezing (Atishoo, Atishoo) A pouch of sweet smelling herbs or posies were carried due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells. The death rate was over 60% and the plage was only halted by the
 Great Fire of London in September 1666
which killed the rats which carried the disease which had been transmitting it to water sources. Read about Samuel Pepys and his connection with the Fire of London. Read on this link about the black death which was also called “The Plague”  and  on THIS LINK to read more about Ring-a-ring-a-rosie.
 

Artist: Louise Mansfield : Irishpaintings.com

famousquotes.me.uk

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Flag of 1928-1994
Following the Union of South Africa , that is the joining if the former colonies of Natal, Cape, Transvaal and Orange River on 31 May 1910, South Africa used defaced red and blue ensigns. Having suffered defeat in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), many South Africans
particularly of Boer extraction found these flags unacceptable. Discussions about
a new flag had taken place from time to time but were interrupted by such pressing issues as World War I and achieving Dominion Status within the British Empire etc. and it was only in 1925 that the matter began to receive renewed attention. The Balfour Declaration adopted at the Imperial Conference of 1926 defined in general terms the mutual constitutional relationship of the self-governing members of the British Empire (later Commonwealth) whereby Great Britain and the dominions were “equal in status, in no way subordinate to one another” and as such South Africa, as an independent state was entitled to a flag of its own. The flag issue in South Africa was also considered along with the question of nationality.

The issue of inclusion of the Union Jack proved to be a very emotional subject, with the English-speakers on the one side demanding its inclusion and the Afrikaners (Boers) seeing its a symbol of British imperialism demanding it be excluded! A number of proposals were put forward but it was not until the Princevlag design based on the House of Orange that consensus began to emerge. This design was based on the commonly held view that Jan van Riebeeck has raised an orange, white and blue horizontal tricolour when he arrived at the Cape in April 1652. The original design had a quartered shield in the centre, each quarter having a symbol to represent the territories making up the Union. Various other designs were submitted to a Parliamentary Committee which had been established to resolve the issue but none found favour.
Read on this link HERE more and it is really worth visiting…very extensive site with information/flags/history on South Africa ….

This song, unfortunately in Afrikaans, is beautiful… “oranje”… = orange…”blou” = blue…it’s a song to motivate people in South Africa to stand together… and to keep spirits high… to have hope….worth listening even if you don’t understand…beautiful images of the country you will enjoy… This flag is…of course you know perhaps….also our country’s old flag.. and we used to call it the “Oranje Blanje Blou”….

 

ORANJE-BLANJE-BLOU

Woorde: EITEMAL, na “O.D., hoch in Ehren”
Musiek: HENRY HUGH PIERSON

Die Hoogland is ons woning,
die land van son en veld,
waar woeste vryheidswinde waai
oor graf van meenge held.
Die ruimtes het ons siel gevoed,
ons kan g’n slawe wees,
want vryer as die arendsvlug,
die vlugte van ons gees.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

Die ruwe bergereekse
staan hoog teen awendlug,
soos gryse ewighede daar
versteen, verstyf in vlug.
En stewig soos die grou graniet
ons Boeretrots en -trou,
die fondament waarop ons hier
‘n nuwe nasie bou.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

Die God van onse vaders
het ons hierheen gelei,
ons dien sy grootse skeppingsplan,
solank ons Boere bly.
Ons buig ons hoof voor Hom alleen;
en as Hy ons verhoor
omgord ons bly die lendene:
Die toekoms wink daar voor.

[REFREIN]
Dis die tyd, dis die dag,
om te handhaaf en te bou.
Hoog die hart, hoog die vlag,
hoog Oranje-blanje-blou!
Ons gaan saam die donker toekoms in
om as een te sneuwel of oorwin,
met ons oog gerig op jou,
ons Oranje-blanje-blou!

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On THIS LINK you can see pics of Pretoria and pics about the roads…and on THIS LINK you can see why it’s also called the Jacaranda City…and Pretoria is one of 3 capitals of SA…in case you didn’t know…it… Cape Town and Bloemfontein are the other capitals…on one of my links you can read why we have 3 capitals! On these three videos, you can follow the history of the Voortrekker Monument …and why Pretoria is called Pretoria… To me…Pretoria will be PRETORIA and not..Tshwane!! According to WIKI Tshwane comes from “black cow” or “monkey” – from the Ndebele word “tshwene”!


The words of the song on the last video…it gives me goosebumps to hear it!! When I was at school… we used to sing this song…. about  “Young South Africa”, the National Anthem, the Flag song AND the school song…every week…yes, every school in SA has got a song as part of the school ethos……. and you are very proud when singing it…you would stand to attention when singing it…it’s really a beautiful song, hope I can get a translation somewhere!  It describes the country in a beautiful way…
DIE LIED VAN JONG SUID-AFRIKA

Woorde: EITEMAL; gewysig: P. MCLACHLAN
Musiek: HUGO GUTSCHE; verwerk: DIRKIE DE VILLIERS

En hoor jy die magtige dreuning?
Oor die veld kom dit wyd gesweef:
die lied van ‘n volk se ontwaking
wat harte laat sidder en beef.
Van Kaapland tot bo in die Noorde
rys dawerend luid die akkoorde:
Dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LIED van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Die klop van die Voortrekkerwawiel
het die eeue se rus verstoor;
die klank van die voorlaaierskote
het klowe en kranse gehoor.
Die diere het stil staan en luister,
die bome het bewend gefluister:
Dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die KOMS van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Waar songloed in glorie die berge
oor hul fronsende voorhoof streel,
waar ruisende wind oor die vlaktes
met grassaad kerjakker en speel,
die land wat ons vaders gekoop het,
met bloed tot ons eie gedoop het:
Dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die LAND van Jong Suid-Afrika.

Die golwende veld is ons woning
en ons dak is die hemelblou;
die Vryheid alleen is ons koning,
sy wagwoord is: “Handhaaf en bou”.
Die stryd wat ons vaders begin het
sal woed tot ons sterf of oorwin het.
Dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika,
dit is die EED van Jong Suid-Afrika

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